Week 1 Notes (Chapter 1)
Week 1 Notes (Chapter 1) SOCIOL 4511
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by ehoy32 on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIOL 4511 at Ohio State University taught by Dana Haynie, Emily Shrider in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 1: Childhood and Delinquency 1/14/16 Crime scenarios: How we would respond #1. Six-year-old hit 7-year-old friend with a piece of wood while another friend held her. The 7-year-old was bloody by the time she came home to her mother. The mother called the police. Who should handle the situation? #2. 6-year-old boy was charged with beating a moth old baby. Accused of kicking, punching, and beating the sleeping baby with a stick causing potential brain damage. Boy said it was in revenge against the family. How should this be handled? Premeditated and injuries more severe Ended up going through treatment options #3. 13-year-old fired two shots from a rifle into a family’s car killing the father, in front of his kids, while the mother was inside a convenience store buying a soda. He shot the father because the headlights of the car were illuminating a drug hideout and he refused to turn them off. 13-year-old yelled a quote from a movie. Kid should know better because of his age Sentenced as an adult and received LWOP Information used: Age – young child versus older adolescent? o 17 or younger o Commit a serious offense – doesn’t matter what age you are o Why important? Children might not know what they are doing is wrong Brain is continually developing until your young 20s Response of excitement is still developing in adolescence Intentions – intended harm? o Did the child understand the consequences? Responsibility – did they understand what they were doing? Harm inflicted? Potential for rehabilitation? o The younger the child, the more the court is going to view them as having potential for rehab Other information? o Family circumstances o Life factors – where they live Poverty and racial bias Background on Adolescence Minors (under 18) make up more than 25% of the population (U.S.) Adolescence today much more different than it was even 40 years ago (1970s) o Technology – exposure to more material o Family structure is different – more than 50% of new marriages end in divorce More children in single parent families o Puberty is occurring much earlier o Traditional arrangement of mothers staying home while fathers work is disappearing o Video games, music, media, television o Children on medication – ADHD/ADD o Increasing poverty o Higher expectations/pressures in education o Cyber-bullying Adolescence is one of the most difficult stages of the life course Many changes/transitions o Puberty o New schools o **Desire for autonomy – wanting to be independent o Media pressure – consumerism, doing well in schools/sports o Peer pressure/acceptance o **School pressure o Romantic/sexual relationships Teenage Stress Top Ten 1. School 2. Family/parents 3. Friends 4. Work 5. Sports 6. Homework 7. Lack of sleep/love life 8. College Adolescent Dilemma The teenage years are a time of conflict with authority and a desire for autonomy Erikson: struggle between two things: o Ego identity – formed when youths develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for (Erik Erikson) o Role diffusion – occurs when youths experience uncertainty of identity Adolescence is the riskiest period of the life course All adolescents are at heightened risks of some problems: o STDs o Suicide o Homicide o Drownings o Overdoses o Vehicle accidents About 75% of teen deaths are due to preventable causes Top Leading Cases of Death in U.S. 15-19 year olds Accidents – 49% Homicide – 15% Suicide – 12% Cancer or illness – 5% Heart Disease – 3% Approximately 25% of youth population are at elevated risk (higher than average) of poor outcomes Difficulties in home, school, and neighborhood place many you at risk for problem behaviors At risk youth: kids most vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality, Higher chance of getting caught in the justice system Some of the most serious issues facing youth revolve around 5 issues: 1. Poverty (1 in 7) a. < 25K for family of 4 2. Health Problems a. Link between poverty and health b. Only 35% meet current physical activity standards of 1 hour c. About 10% don’t have health insurance 3. Family Problems a. Half marriages end in divorce 4. Substandard Living Conditions a. Housing issues b. Multiple living transitions c. Homeless for a period of time d. Exposure to lead/asbestos 5. Inadequate Education a. More than 10% of thnority youth do not graduate high school b. About 60% of 4 graders are not leading at grade level Reasons for hope – what has improved for adolescents? Teenage birthrates declined More vaccinations for disease Better prenatal care More adolescents are going to college Lower use of hard drugs Lower levels of smoking Increasing technological savvy But…teens still engage in riskier behaviors during this stage of the life course Childhood and Delinquency continued 1/19/2016 Why do teens engage in risky behavior? Brain is still continuing to develop: Prefrontal cortex is responsible for decision making Study of Juvenile Delinquency How do we define juvenile delinquency? Participation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under a statutory age limit o Typically 17 or younger o On average, 1.7 million youths arrested each year Chronic juvenile offenders have been arrested four or more times o “Chronic 6%” The juvenile justice system is a segment of the justice system that includes: Law enforcement officers The courts Correctional agencies All designed to treat youthful offenders What is the goal of the juvenile justice system? Treat and rehabilitate juvenile offenders th Recent institution – did not exist before the late 19 century Development of Childhood Why did it take so long for J.J. system to operate? Children not viewed as distinct social group During the middle ages, treated as miniature adults o Had adult roles (wage providers), severe discipline, limited contact with parents o Paternalistic family: father complete control Children mortality rate very high in the middle ages Throughout the 17 and 18 centuries, development in England resulted in recognition of children’s rights Changes in family structures o Rise of nuclear families o Family characterized by closer emotional bonds Development of poor laws o Place poor/neglected children as servants/apprentices in other households o Court responsible for placing them Apprenticeship movement: boys placed in households where they could learn a skilled trade Development of chancery courts o Originally used to protect property rights; expanded to rule on welfare of elite children Childhood in America Children came to the colonies as indentured servants, apprentices, or agricultural citizens o Recruited from work houses, orphanages, prisons With industrialization, children often began working in factories at very young ages (as young as 3) o No laws in place to protect children from working long hours or in dangerous conditions Controlling children Factory Act o Limited hours allowed to work and age when they could start Children could only work 12 hours a day 1847 – adults/children limited to 10-hour work days Stubborn child laws – required children to obey parents o 1641 – Massachusetts passed the first stubborn child law o Sons, aged 16 and older, could be punished by death if proven that he would not obey his parents Concept of Delinquency th In the mid-19 century, official recognition that children formed a separate group with unique needs o Treatment to focus on special needs of children Child savers developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the J.J.S. Delinquents were viewed as victims of improper home care Illegal behavior a sign that the state should step in and take control of youth The J.J.S. operated under parens patriae philosophy o Courts had power to intervene and do whatever they viewed as in the best interests of the child Had complete control over the child Power removed from parents and placed into the court system What is in the best interest of the child – overruling parents Early Reformatory School for Juveniles o Devoted to care and reform of vagrants and delinquent children San Francisco Industrial School, 1859 What are the legal implications of being classified as a delinquent rather than a criminal? Reduce stigma o Use a separate type of language and confidentiality – shield child from stigma Instead of trial – adjudicated Record is sealed/not permanent – erased when they become adults Treated differently than adults o Minor Most commonly 17 or younger o Limited responsibility for committing crimes o Kept separate from adults o Given treatment, not punishment Transforming Justice System – Tedx on YouTube
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