Sociology Textbook Notes Ch. 5 and 6
Sociology Textbook Notes Ch. 5 and 6 Sociology 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Pamfilis on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sociology 101 at Towson University taught by William Tsitsos in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 5: Socialization 5.1: Theories of Self Development Socialization: the process through which people are taught to be proficient members of society, the ways people come to understand the norms and customs of their society Socializing: interacting with others, like friends and family Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): psychoanalyst who developed a theory about how people develop a sense of self; he believed that personality and sexual development were closely linked, and divided the maturation process into psychosexual phases (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital) Erik Erikson (1902-1994): created a theory of personality development that stated that the personality continued to change over time and was never fully finished Jean Piaget (1896-1980): specialized in child development, focusing on the role of social interactions in development Self: a person's distinct identity that is developed through social interactions Generalized other: the common behavioral expectations of general society Moral development: term referring to the way that people learn what society considers to be good or bad Carol Gilligan (1936-): studied differences between the development of morality in boys (justice perspective, emphasis on rules and laws) and girls (care and responsibility perspective, consider the reasons behind people's behavior) 5.2: Why Socialization Matters Nurture: the relationships and caring that surround us Nature: our temperaments, interests and talents that are set before birth (genetics) 5.3: Agents of Socialization Social group agents: often provide the first experiences of socialization, communicate expectations and reinforce norms o Family: first agent of socialization, teach a child what he or she needs to know o Peer groups: made up of people who are similar in age and social status and who share interests, helps to develop an identity separate from their parents and increase independence Institutional agents: o School: manifest function is to study different subjects and to learn "book knowledge", latent function is socializing children into behaviors like teamwork, following a schedule, and using textbooks Hidden curriculum: informal teaching done by schools o The workplace: require new socialization into a workplace, both in material and nonmaterial culture o Religion: teaches participants how to interact with the religions material culture, many uphold gender norms and reinforce the socialization of said norms, fosters a shared set of socialized values passed on through society o Government: many of the rites of passage people go through are tied to age norms established by the government (ex: adult=18 because you are legally responsible for yourself, old age=65 because you are eligible for senior citizen discounts) o Mass media: the distribution of impersonal information to a wide audience, such as what happens via television, newspapers, radio, and the internet 5.4: Socialization across the Life Course Socialization across the life course is determined greatly by age norms and "time related rules and regulations" (ex: school age, entering workforce, retiring) Many of life's social expectations are clear and enforced on a cultural level Anticipatory socialization: the preparation for future life roles Re-socialization: old behaviors that were helpful in a previous role that are removed because they are no longer of use Degradation ceremony: new members lose the aspects of their old identity and are given new identities Chapter 6: Groups and Organization 6.1: Types of Groups The concept of a group is central to how we think about society and social interaction Group: an amorphous term referring to a wide variety of gatherings, from just two people, a club, a gathering of friends; any collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who share a sense that their identity is somehow aligned with the group Aggregate: a crowd; people who exist at the same time and at the same place, but do not share an identity or interact with frequency Category: a collection of people who share an identity, but do not interact with frequency Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929): sociologist who suggested that groups can be broadly divided into two categories: primary and secondary groups Primary groups: play the most critical role in our lives, fairly small, made up of individuals who generally engage face to face in long-term, emotional ways; serve expressive functions Secondary groups: larger and impersonal, task-focused and time-limited; serve instrumental functions Expressive functions: emotional needs Instrumental functions: role is goal or task oriented In group: the group that an individual feels they belong to, and believes it to be an integral part of who they are Out group: a group that someone doesn’t belong to (may be a feeling of disdain or competition in relation to an out group) Reference group: a group that people compare themselves to that serves to provide a standard of measurement 6.2: Group Size and Structure Dyad: two member group Triad: three member group Leadership function: main focus or goal of a leader Instrumental leader: one who id goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing these tasks Expressive leader: more concerned with promoting emotional strength and health, and ensuring that people feel supported Leadership styles: three main types of leaders o Democratic leader: encourage group participation in decision making o Laissez faire leader: allow group members to self-manage and make their own decisions o Authoritarian leader: issues orders and assigns tasks (without input from members) Conformity: the extent to which an individual complies with group norms or expectations 6.3: Formal Organizations Formal organizations: organizations that are highly bureaucratized (ex: schools, government) Bureaucracies: an ideal type of formal organization Normative organizations: (aka voluntary organizations) based on shared interests Coercive organizations: groups that one must be pushed to join (total institutions) Utilitarian organizations: joined because of the need for a specific material reward Hierarchy of authority: refers to the aspect of bureaucracy that places on individual or office in charge of another, who in turn must answer to his or her own superiors Clear division of labor: refers to the fact that each individual has a specialized task to perform Explicit rules: the way in which rules are outlined, written down, and standardized Impersonality: takes personal feelings out of professional situations Meritocracy: meaning that hiring and promotion is based on proven and documented skills , rather than nepotism or random choice Iron Rule of Oligarchy: wherein an entire organization is ruled by select few elites McDonaldization of society: refers to the increasing pressure of fast food business model in social institutions (division of labor, monitoring, efficiency, predictability, calculability, control)