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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by ehoy32 on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIOL 4511 at Ohio State University taught by Dana Haynie, Emily Shrider in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 2: In 2012, Supreme court rules mandatory life sentences for teens are unconstitutional But this was not retroactive Therefore, almost 2,000 youth remain in prison for life Yesterday (1/25/16) ruled that this has to be applied retroactively. All retroactive cases have to be reviewed Types of data Official data o UCR Self-report data o Surveys Victim data o National Survey Official statistics UCR o Police reports of crime and arrests Represents >18,000 police departments o FBI compiles the data and reports Raw figures: the number of crimes reported to police and number of arrests made Difficult to study trends o Not accounting for population size Crime rates: (# of crimes reported/total U.S. population) x 100,000 = rate per 100,000 Murder rate of 5.6 in 2005 indicates that out of 100,000 people, 5.6 of them were murdered Why are rates more useful than raw numbers? o Changes in crime over time o Part I Offenses (Index crimes) Homicide Rape Robbery – use of a weapon Burglary – breaking and entering Larceny Arson Motor vehicle theft Aggravated assault – definition has changed over time o Part II Offenses All crime other than Part I recorded by local law enforcement Offense vs. Clearance rate Clearance rate – actually arrested the offender and case is closed o Doesn’t happen all the time o High clearance rates? Murder Aggravated assault o Lower clearance rates? Larceny Burglary Motor vehicle theft Over the last 10 years, crime rates have decreased Average – not particular cities 1960s and 70s Civil Rights Issues Height of the crack epidemic Gangs Vietnam war vets returning Baby Boomers coming of age Has property crime increased? Has not Significantly dropped Has violent crime increased? Has not Significantly dropped since 2010 Measuring Juvenile Delinquency UCR stats are disaggregated by suspect’s age o Used to estimate juvenile delinquency Indicates that teen arrests account for a significant portion of all arrests Persons arrested, by age Serious violent crime – Under 15: 4%; Under 18: 16% Juveniles account for 15% of all crime arrests o At what age is crime the highest? Property – peaks at 16; drop in half by age 20 Violent – peaks at 18 Goes hand in hand with alcohol Not as premeditated – spontaneous What factors can account for trends in arrests over time? Age – changes in the age distribution of the population o Larger component of teens – crime tends to go up o Larger component of elderly – crime tends to go down Guns – accessibility Economy and economic problems o Large unemployed population – more surveillance of communities Drugs – changes in drug markets Gang activity Juvenile Justice Policy Abortion – not true but gained attention Are the UCR data valid? Shortcomings o Only including reported crime Half of all victims report crime Juveniles less likely to report crimes Most delinquency is youth-on-youth Youth offender and youth victim o Report only one offense (often multiple offenses occur) Only record the most serious offense o Victimless crimes are severely undercounted Prostitution Drug use o Problems with police reporting crime o Reflect police or justice bias – arrest decision criteria may vary Benefits o Trends in frequency of arrests o Age, gender, race breakdown of arrests o Geographic variation in arrests Regional differences in crime Rural vs urban vs suburban o UCR data problems are consistent over time so trends are consistent over time Trends and data are very similar to self-report data How technology is using crime statistics CrimeReports.com National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Requires local police to provide much detail about each crime o Only 26 states have their programs certified by the FBI Date includes details of: o Incident: attempted vs completed, location, type of weapon, loss type (for property) o Victim: age, sex, race, relationship to offender, type of injury o Offender Self-Reported Delinquency Individual level data – not aggregated o Info: personality, family, attitudes, and behavior of individuals who do and do not commit crimes Adolescents in high school o Self-report studies: questionnaires ask subjects to reveal their delinquent or criminal acts Self-report data captures the dark figures of crime o Crime undetected by police o What crime especially likely to be undetected? Juvenile crimes Benefits: o Measures behavior not detected by police o Measures non-delinquent behavior o Gathers personal information on delinquents o Includes behavior rarely detected by police o Includes background on individuals who do and who do not offend Findings: o Delinquency appears to be universal o What are the most common delinquent offenses? Truancy Drinking alcohol Fighting Using marijuana Shoplifting Damaging property of others Limitations: o Answers may be less than candid o Non-representative samples Doesn’t include the kids who aren’t in school Most likely to be committing the crimes o Trivial nature of some items may inflate figures o May exclude the most serious chronic offenders Does self-report data on crime match crime rates reported in UCR o Self-report captures higher prevalence of delinquency o Self-report data suggests that minorities are over-represented in UCR data o Patterns and trends reported are similar 1.28.16 Where do the most crimes occur? – Urban areas Who commits the most crime? – Males What season are the most crimes committed in? – Summer Who commits more crimes? – Whites Who is most likely to be victimized? – Adolescents Elderly have the lowest rate Who is most likely to be victimized? – Males Who is most likely to be victimized? – Blacks Individuals are most likely to be victimized by? – Friends Correlations of Delinquency Time and place of delinquency o Most occur during the summer months o Most occur in large urban areas o What time of day? Between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. – out of school but parents aren’t home yet Gender o Males are more likely to commit delinquent acts Why? – Hormones, females supervised more o Most common acts committed by boys are also committed by girls o Girls more likely to be arrested for running away Parents are more likely to report female runaways More risk for females when they run away Race and Delinquency UCR indicates large race disparity with minorities more likely to be arrested than whites o 70% of all arrests are While; 30% African American Disproportionate to their population (12%) o 60% of all arrests for violent crime are white; 40% Black African American juveniles represent: o About half of all juvenile violent arrests o 1/3 of all juvenile property arrests Self-report data show very little racial differences Race and Mass Incarceration in the U.S. Recent study found that almost half of black men are arrested by age 23 o Michelle Alexander – The New Jim Crow o YouTube video – Cops, Justice System Racist, Classist or Both? Professor Pager study o Whether or not individuals were able to rent a property Race and whether or not you had a felony conviction o More likely to rent to a white person who had a previous conviction than a black person with no criminal record Trayvon Martin case – current example o Trayvon was killed by a neighborhood watchman. Martin was killed while visiting his father in a gated housing development. Zimmerman was initially freed by the police by the police after saying he shot Martin in self-defense but had then been arrested and charged with second-degree murder. He was found not guilty by a jury of his peers Trayvon Martin 911 Call o Charts show that white on black killings will be found the most justifiable compared to white-on-white killings Black on black is more justifiable than black on white What explains differences between official crime rates and self-report crime rates? Bias Effect o Institutional racism by police/courts unfairly targets non-white adolescents Other explanations? o Economic, neighborhood, and educational conditions play a role Social Class o Is crime solely an economic issue? o Do only poor individuals commit crime? o Social class is associated with arrest (UCR) o Social class is less likely to be associated with delinquency (self-report) o Some differences in the type of delinquency reported by youth of different social class YouTube video: There’s NO JUSTICE in The Criminal Justice System! Rich Teen Kills F… The “Affluenza” defense o Fled to Mexico and broke probation with his mother – partying o Caught and extradited back because they ordered Dominos Pizza C. Juvenile Victimization National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) o Annual household survey of residents in the U.S. o Asks people about victimization experiences o About 50,000 households and 100,000 subjects Teens are more than 15 times as likely to become victims than their grandparents o Victimization declines with age TedTalk – New Jersey Attorney General No federal regulation of the type of data that police departments have to include
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