New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

OCN 150 Water and Sea

by: Lyda Walker

OCN 150 Water and Sea OCN 150 - 001

Lyda Walker
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Introduction to Oceanography

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Introduction to Oceanography notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

these are notes from the week of February 8th - 14th
Introduction to Oceanography
Dr. Sharon Hoffman
Class Notes
Introduction To Oceanography




Popular in Introduction to Oceanography

Popular in Oceanography

This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lyda Walker on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to OCN 150 - 001 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Sharon Hoffman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Oceanography in Oceanography at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


Reviews for OCN 150 Water and Sea


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/16/16
Lyda WalFebruary 8, 2016 – OCN 150y 11, 2016 OCN 150 NOTES: W A TER AND SEA OWater has many unique thermal and dissolving properties. o Way it absorbs and gives off energy Seawater is mostly water molecules but has dissolved substances. What makes seawater different from freshwatererences. o DCauses changes like lower freezing point etc. Atmosphere plays big role in the overall movement of the ocean Eo Denser stuff sinksts determine the density of the water o Less dense stuff rises Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150 Atomic Structure  Atoms o Building blocks of all matter  Subatomic particles o Protons o Neutrons o Electrons  Number of protons distinguishes chemical elements  All came from the “Big Bang”  All oxygen in the solar system came from stars Water molecule  Strong covalent bonds (sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms) between two hydrogen (H) and one oxygen (O) atoms  Both H atoms on same side of O atom  Actual molecule is bent at a 105 degrees  Both oxygen and hydrogen share electrons that orbit outside the nucleus  Electrons are more likely to be near the oxygen than near the hydrogens o Oxygen is more negative o Hydrogen is more positive  H2O has balanced charges o Same number of protons and neutrons Hydrogen Bonding  Polarity means small negative charge at O end  Small positive charge at H end  Attraction between positive and negative ends of water molecules to each other or other ions  Negative end will attract to positive end of adjacent molecule and vice versa o Called hydrogen bonding  Hydrogen bonds are weaker than covalent bonds but still strong enough to result in o High solubility of chemical compounds in water o High surface tension o Solid, liquid, gas at Earth’s surface o Unusual thermal properties o Unusual density Water as Solvent  Water molecules stick to other polar molecules.  Hydrogen bonds are why water is such a good solvent Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150 o Hydrogen gets attracted to literally anything else negative o Stuff that is polar and has different charges can be dissolved  Water can basically pull apart molecules like NaCl and dissolve them o Cannot dissolve oil molecules  They have very evenly distributed charges unlike NaCl and other molecules  Stuff that is not polar will not get dissolved  Hydration o water molecules surround other atoms or molecules, and weaken their attraction to each other  Water thus can separate many atoms or molecules, and dissolve them Water’s Surface Tension  Molecules in the middle of the liquid can form hydrogen bonds in all directions  Molecules at the surface of the liquid can ONLY form bonds sideways and downwards! o Can bond with water not air o Forming hydrogen bonds with fewer molecules than molecules completely surrounded by water  Makes them have stronger bonds than molecules completely surrounded by water  This makes the surface tension on top of the water  So, they form fewer but stronger hydrogen bonds Water’s Thermal Properties  Water is solid, liquid, and gas at Earth’s surface. o (Can you think of any other substance that does this?)  Rocks exist in two states  Carbon dioxide in two states  Nitrogen in one state  Water is really the only substance that normally does change between all 3 phases  Has huge effect on earth’s climate  Water has a huge influence on Earth’s heat budget. o (what’s a heat budget?) Water’s Three Sates of Matter  In ice there are H bond between all water molecules o Water molecules get locked into place by other hydrogen bonds  As a liquid there are some H bonds o Molecules are not locked into place and they rotate and continually break and remake molecules with different bonds o For every bond they break they make another bond  As a gas there are none o All bonds are broken Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150 o Water molecules are just bouncing around on their own not bonded to anything  Hydrogen bonds determines how water acts in all 3 states of matter Molecular Motion of Water  Three Types: o Vibration  Sit in place and shake o Rotation  Move in circles o Translation  Can move anywhere they want to o High temperature means high kinetic energy  Harder to form hydrogen bonds  Molecules break all binds as temperature gets higher  Makes liquid and then gas o Lower temperature means lower kinetic energy  Easier to form hydrogen bonds  Easier to keep those bonds, stays there, and not break them  This is what makes a solid Heat  Energy of moving molecules  Takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water  One Calorie o The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C.  Temperature o A measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. Water’s Heat Capacity and Specific Heat  Heat Capacity o Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of any substance by 1°C  Water has a high heat capacity o Can take in or lose much heat without changing temperature o When water absorbs heat, it takes longer than other molecules to give that heat back  This is the lake has to soak in the sun for a week to get warm enough to swim in o Latent heat  Hidden energy  Used to change the phase not the temperature  It doesn’t take a lot of energy to melt ice (80 cal/g/C) Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150  It takes a lot of energy to change liquid water to water vapor (540 cal/g/C) o Evaporation is a huge transfer of energy  Rocks have low heat capacity o Quickly change temperature as they gain/loose heat  Specific Heat o Heat capacity per unit mass Global thermostatic effects  Moderate temperature on Earth’s surface o Equatorial oceans (hot) don’t boil o Polar oceans (cold) don’t freeze solid  Marine effect o Oceans moderate temperature changes day/night; different seasons, annual, decades, etc.  Continental effect o Land areas have greater range of temperatures day/night and during different seasons Water Density  Density is defined as mass per unit volume (e.g. g/cm3)  Fresh water is about 1 g/cm3  Density of water increases as temperature decreases. o Thermal contraction  Same amount of water takes up less volume at the temperature drops  From 4°C to 0°C the density of water decreases as temperature decreases.  Ice is less dense than water. o Changes in molecular packing o In ice, molecules are spread out and locked in place with a lot of space in-between them o As they cool down, line themselves up in isolated formation  Makes ice less dense  Water expands as it freezes.  Increasing pressure or adding dissolved substances decreases the maximum density temperature.  Dissolved solids also reduce the freezing point of water. o Most seawater never freezes. o Thought experiment  What would happen if ice were denser than water? How would an ocean or a lake be different? Earth’s Water  97.2% in the world ocean  2.15% frozen in glaciers and ice caps  0.62% in groundwater and soil moisture Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150  0.02% in streams and lakes  0.001% as water vapor in the atmosphere Earth’s Hyrologic Cycle  Evaporation  Condensation  Precipitation  Run Off Salinity  Total amount of dissolved solids in water o Excludes dissolved organics  Ratio of mass of dissolved substances to mass of water sample  Principle of constant proportions o Ocean is well mixed o Constant composition of ions o What usually changes salinity is adding or subtracting water not salt  Expressed in parts per thousand (ppt), or per mil  Typical ocean salinity is 35 ppt Salinity variations  Open ocean salinity 33 to 38 ‰ (mostly about 35‰)  Coastal areas salinity varies more widely o Influx of freshwater lowers salinity or creates brackish conditions o Greater rate of evaporation raises salinity or creates hypersaline conditions o Salinity may vary with seasons (dry/rain) ***Seawater always gets denser as it gets colder, until -2 ⁰C, the freezing point of seawater*** How to change salinity  Add water  Remove water  Add dissolved substances  Remove dissolved substances Processes Affecting Salinity: Changing the Amount of Water  Salinity decreases through: o Adding fresh water:  Precipitation (rain or snow)  Runoff (river flow)  Melting icebergs  Melting sea ice  Salinity increases through: o Taking away fresh water:  Evaporation Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150  Formation of sea ice Processes Affecting Salinity: Changing the Amount of Dissolved Substances  Salinity increases through: o Rivers supplying substances from land o Volcanic eruptions o Atmosphere o Biologic interactions o Chemical reactions at seafloor  Salinity decreases through: o Salt spray o Chemical reactions at seafloor o Biologic interactions o Evaporite formation o Adsorption Surface Salinity Variation  High latitudes o Low salinity o Abundant sea ice melting, precipitation, and runoff  Low latitudes near equator o Low salinity o High precipitation and runoff  Always there  Mid latitudes o High salinity o Warm, dry, descending air increases evaporation  Most evaporation at the surface  Salinity so high in the Mediterranean sea because: o Warm o Dry o Little precipitation o Water comes into Mediterranean from the Atlantic ocean o Lots of evaporation  More evaporation taking water away than there is river run off taking water back into it Salinity Variation with Depth  Low latitudes o Salinity may decrease with depth  High latitudes o Salinity may increase with depth  Deep ocean salinity fairly consistent globally  Halocline o Separates ocean layers of different salinity Density of Seawater  1.022 to 1.030 g/cm3 surface seawater Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150  Fresh water is less dense than the ocean  Ocean layered according to density  Density seawater controlled by temperature, salinity, and pressure o Most important influence is temperature o Density increases with decreasing temperature o As salinity increases, density increases o As pressure increases, density increases Density Versus Depth  Density differences cause a layered ocean o Less dense stuff floats on top  Pycnocline o Abrupt change of density with depth  As you go down further in the ocean, the pressure increases  Low latitudes start out low density and go to high as you get deeper  High latitudes may only have high densities throughout because of latitude  This is when surface and deep oceans can mix o Really hard to mix surface ocean with deep ocean because of differences in density  Surface water is low density and wants to float  Deep water is high density and wants to sink  Thermocline o Abrupt change of temperature with depth  Top of water is warm but a little below and it turns cold o No thermoclines in high latitudes sometimes  Halocline o Abrupt change of salinity with depth ***Make sure you know these 4 “Clines” for the quizzes!*** Layered Ocean  Three distinct water masses based on density: o Mixed surface layer  Above thermocline o Upper water  Thermocline and pycnocline o Deep water  Below thermocline to ocean floor o High latitude oceans  Thermocline and pycnocline rarely develop  Isothermal  Isopycnal What is the atmosphere? The air around us What supplies energy to the atmosphere and surface of the Earth? The sun Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150 How does the atmosphere move in response to uneven heating? How does the atmosphere move in response to the Earth’s rotation? So, what makes the equator hot and the poles cold, anyway? Where does the energy come from? Uneven solar heating More sunlight per unit area falls at the equator than at the poles Light travels a shorter path through the atmosphere at the equator  Less chance for it to get scattered  Northern hemisphere there is little change in the seasons  Northern hemisphere winter: o Closest to the sun o Makes winters warmer  Northern hemisphere summer: o Farthest from the sun o Makes summers colder  Southern hemisphere has more extreme seasons Why is the atmosphere important to oceanography?  Atmosphere and ocean are one large fluid system; or two interdependent systems  Atmosphere and oceans redistribute heat soaked up from the sun at the equator and moves in towards the poles o Keeps the equator from just heating up constantly o Keeps the poles from freezing over constantly  Ocean doesn’t move without atmosphere  atmosphere doesn’t move without ocean  ***Energy is necessary to put anything on Earth into motion; the Sun is the source of energy for surface processes*** o Put air into motion  Winds drive surface ocean currents and produce waves  Examples of interactions: o El Niño o Southern Oscillation o Greenhouse effect, Hurricanes What’s in the atmosphere?  Mostly gases that let visible light go right through.  Atmosphere made up of oxygen (~20.9%), nitrogen (~78.1%), argon (~0.9%), water vapor, carbon dioxide (~0.039%), methane, and other trace elements o Determines how earth takes in and gives off energy  Earth’s surface absorbs light, heats up, and radiates heat.  Trace amounts of gases then absorb that heat  Greenhouse gases o They then radiate energy back out towards:  Space Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150  Neighboring elements  Ground o If there were no greenhouse gases the earth’s surface temperature would drop 20-30 degrees Celsius  Everything would freeze over  No fresh water  That means no humans, animals, or plants Everything in universe is giving off some kind of radiation constantly  Have to be at absolute zero to not give off radiation Stratosphere  Heated from above by UV radiation hitting ozone in the air o Increases as you go up  Source of heat o Gets heated up from ozone layer and from above o Ultra-violet is getting absorbed, breaking up molecules, making energy Troposphere  Heated from below by the Earth’s surface radiating heat  Densest part of atmosphere o Most gas o Where the weather happens o Makes winds, and hurricanes, etc. o Most important from humans P.O.V  Warmest at bottom, cools as you go up o Ex: Climb a mountain, warmer at bottom and cooler at top Atmospheric Convection Winds always blow from high pressure to low pressure  Along pressure gradients Idealized Air Circulation  Air (wind) always moves from regions of high pressure to low  Convection or circulation cell  Rising warm air cools o moisture condenses as rain  Rainy equator, dry poles where air sinks Coriolis Effect The Earth is rotating, and points on the equator have to move much faster than points near the North Pole during each day. Deflection from the Coriolis Effect NH  Deflected to right SH  Deflected to left The Coriolis Effect Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150  Coriolis Effect causes a deflection of moving bodies (or masses) on Earth  Due to Earth’s rotation to east  Most pronounced on objects that move long distances across latitudes  Deflection to right in Northern Hemisphere  Deflection to left in Southern Hemisphere Global atmospheric circulation  Circulation cells form as air changes density due to: o Changes in air temperature o Changes in water vapor content  Three circulation cells form in each hemisphere o Hadley cells (0o to 30oN and S) o Ferrel cells (30o to 60oN and S) o Polar cells (60o to 90oN and S) Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Hot air rises here, and cools as it risesCondensation of water vaporClouds Convergence  The trade winds blow towards each other and converge here Global wind belts (Zonal winds)  Trade Winds: 0-30 N and S latitudes o Northeast trades in Northern Hemisphere o Southeast trades in Southern Hemisphere  Prevailing Westerlies: 30-60 N and S  Polar Easterlies: 60-90 N and S  Boundaries between wind belts o Doldrums or Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) o Horse latitudes o Polar fronts Global Atmospheric Circulation “Zonal Winds”  (zonal = along a latitude band) Winds are named for which direction they blow FROM How is the 3 convection cell model modified in reality?  More complex in reality (nature) due to: o Seasons o Distribution of continents and ocean o Differences in heat capacity between continents and ocean (land v. water) o These complexities produce large high and low pressure cells that are more or less stationary over large areas of the Earth How are pressure cells distributed? (Where the convection cells come together)  Two high pressure zones (belts) in each hemisphere o Subtropical highs Lyda Walker February 8, 2016 – February 11, 2016 OCN 150 o Polar highs o Clear skies, arid climates  Two low pressure zones (belts) in each hemisphere o Equatorial lows o Subpolar lows o Overcast skies with lots of precipitation Storms and Air Masses  Storms o Disturbances with strong winds and precipitation  Air masses o Large volumes of air with distinct properties  Land air masses dry  Marine air masses moist Fronts  Fronts o Boundaries between air masses  Warm front  Cold front  Storms typically develop at fronts.  Jet Stream o May cause unusual weather by steering air masses. Tropical cyclones (hurricanes)  Large rotating masses of low pressure  Strong winds, torrential rain  Classified by maximum sustained wind speed Ocean’s climate zones  Open ocean’s climate zones run parallel to latitude  May be modified by surface ocean currents in some regions  Zones o Equatorial  Warm, lots of rain o Tropical  Warm, less rain, trade winds o Subtropical  Rather warm, high rate of evaporation, weak winds


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.