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DNA notes, Chapter 11

by: Paola Venturini

DNA notes, Chapter 11 CHS 3501

Paola Venturini

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Use powerpoint slides as complementary material.
Forensic Science
Jeannette Perr
Class Notes
Forensic Science, DNA, Chapter 11
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Venturini on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHS 3501 at Florida International University taught by Jeannette Perr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science in Chemistry at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
DNA Becoming more advances, being used at everything. Forensic Bio  human bodily fluids, mostly in HUMAN. You can use DNA for other things like plants ($$$) DNA that doesn’t matter (in between DNA that is very variable) DNA that does matter Nuclear DNA (white blood) WHAT IS DNA SLIDE 1  Deoxyribonucleic acid  Carries genetic info  Arranged along chromosomes, if you take it apart (double stranded helix)  Made of units called nucleotides o Sugar molecule o Phosphorous group o Nitrogen containing sguier WHAT CHANGES If an important part of DNA is altered you can get cancer You get cancer from UV light … The gene is the fundamental unit of heredity (you get it from your parents) Each gene is composed of DNA, specifically designed to carry the task of controlling the genetic traits of our cells (Amino acids  Proteins  get things done in your body) FOUR BASES (A=T, 2x) (G=C, 3x)  A  G  C  T Each group of 3 nucleotides in a DNA sequence codes for a particular aminoacid. ONE NUCLEOTIDE OFF CAN CREATE A GENETIC DISORDER. (Most of the times in embryo ends in miscarriage) Non coding region, sequences that repeat over and over again. Each link will be different based on the person. st DNA Testing = 1 thing  blood type. Human ID testing Mass disasters (i.e.: 9/11, plane crash, remains that can’t be identified) TYPES OF DNA MARKERS – DNA advances, it is time consuming, used to take months.  VNTR: Variable # tandem repeats (old school DNA, not used anymore, not PCR based); locus-specific  RFLP: Restriction (new but not best) = match the “band” sets to determine a match. For each loci used, use multiplication rule. (80s, OJ Simpson)  STR (PCR based, routine analysis) (2000s)  SNIP: ID a person DNA typing (DNA profiling or typing  can link DNA to one person through one bio gjreg) Jeffrey’s Work (1 innocent project) PART PAPER = DNA is very stable, beyond statute of limitations. You can go back to case work to check it. YOU HAVE TO CONVICE THEM TO TAKE YOUR CASE = they exonerate people. 25% of time is not who they though it was.  Blood sample extract DNA  ENZYMES CUT THINGS (GC)  Separate strands, small DNA strands “fly”, larger “more time” to get to ball pit = travel to the positive side  (Use to expose it to XRAYS and gels, not anymore)  Add dye (color to see it because DNA is clear) DNA statistics change over time Cue = unknown sample Look at female fraction as well (if it doesn’t match you might have an issue) DNA reproduction (PCR) – Kary Mullis (Nobel Prize for it)  Wrap up in double helix  Unwind = two strands (G=C, A=T)  Add nucleotides = they will sort in place  Two strands and form double helix  Repeat process until you have all DNA you want PCR can’t be applied to all RFLP STP easier (what is typically used in everyday forensic analysis), they can be complex and overlapping 1. Blood stain 2. DNA trapped 3. Hunch a hole 4. DNA test tube 5. How much DNA? 6. Make copies 7. Instead of gel, you create a column made up of gel 8. UV light you get a peak 9. Regions where you look at XY = male (2 peaks), XX = female (1 peak)  MtDNA = comes from mom (egg)  Each contains several loops of DNA  Giant circle  2 regions (HV1, HV2 inherited through maternal line)  Your dad won’t share your mtDNA, your brother will Mixture of mitochondrial DNA within a single cell, Mixture of multiple mtDNA sequence types in a given individual. Leads to false exclusions. Quimeras = mixture of DNA (do not happen a lot) PART PAPER DNA evidence, collect and analyze carefully (do not contaminate yourself or crime scene) Buccal swab = to collect DNA at add to FTA paper.


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