Chapter 4- Social Views of Delinquency
Chapter 4- Social Views of Delinquency Soc 4511
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jocelyn Rossell on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 4511 at Ohio State University taught by Dana Haynie in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 4- Sociological Views of Delinquency 02/16/2016 1. Social Structure Theories a. Social disorganization b. Anomie/strain c. Cultural Deviance Theories 2. Social Process Theories a. Social learning Theory b. Social Control Theory c. Social Reaction Theory 3. Critical Theory ▯ ▯ Social Structure Theories What are the social factors believed to cause or affect delinquency? Interpersonal Interactions families, peers, schools, jobs Community Conditions neighborhoods, school Social Change political unrest/mistrust; economic stress; family dissolution Socioeconomic Status Poverty Racial Disparity Unequal distribution of resources by race ▯ Aspects of Social Structure Theories o Delinquency function of person’s place in social & economic structure o Social & economic forces operating in disadvantaged areas push residents into crime Culture of Poverty Oscar Lewis Lowerclass residents develop a separate culture with distinct values and norms Norms of Underclass Structure o Toughness o Don’t back down o Deemphasize education o Presentoriented o Mistrust of police o What effect do these values have on crime? Underclass or truly disadvantaged William J Wilson individuals who reside in impoverished neighborhoods and can’t leave Need to focus on structure & conditions 1. Social Disorganization Theory Shaw and McKay’s work in Chicago Notes high crime areas in Chicago persisted over time despite different groups of immigrants moving in and out Crime is result of neighborhood characteristics, not individual characteristics Neighborhoods characterized by: Lack of cohesiveness people don’t know each other well transient population cultural conflict insufficient organization – can’t work together well o Spiral of Disorganization Poverty Residential instability low social control collective efficacy declines gangs rampant community fear more poverty (poorest of poor) Collective efficacy residents don’t trust others Community fear residents leave if possible 2. Anomie/Strain Theory o In America, almost everyone has same goals American Dream? o Strain condition caused by the failure to achieve one’s social goals o Anomie without acceptable means for obtaining success, individuals feel strain (experience anomie) Turn to deviant methods to achieve goals crime o Strain is not evenly distributed more likely in disadvantaged areas o General Strain Theory Agnew More sources of strain than economic strain Four types of strain: Failure to achieve positively valued goals Wanting a boyfriend, wanting a car, college Disjunction of expectations and achievements Thinking did well, but poor result Removal of positive stimuli, taken away Breakups, credit card taken Presentation of negative stimuli Abuse, death Delinquency linked to various types of strain If strain results in anger, crime more likely 3. Cultural Deviance Theory o Delinquency a result of youth’s adoption of lowerclass neighborhood cultural values o Subcultures may have unique values that clash with mainstream culture o Youth may experience culture conflict and code switching ▯ ▯ ▯ Social Process Theories Socialization process of learning values/norms of the society of subculture to which individuals belong o Guide people into behavior through information, approval, rewards & punishments 1 . Social Learning Theory o Delinquency is learned through close relationships with others o Differential Association Theory Criminal behavior is learned primarily in interpersonal groups Become delinquent if definitions learned in groups that are favorable to violating the law exceed definitions favorable to obeying the law o Deviant values significant others hold values that support deviance o Exposure Youth are exposed to deviant norms and values while in intimate contact with significant others o Learning Norms and values are transferred to youth through learning experiences o Delinquent Behavior o Ex Gran Torino, Child Soldiers in Somalia 2. Social Control Theory o Premise all people are born bad & need to have controls placed on them in order for them to act good o Whose job is it? – parents, school, friends o Hirschi theorist Everyone has potential to commit crime People controlled by bonds/attachments to society If bonds are weak, delinquency results Social Bonds Attachment (emotion) Commitment (stake in conformity) Belief (moral code) Involvement (amount of time spent in conventional activities) 3 . Social Reaction Theory o Focuses on how society reacts to individuals o Stigmatized people o Labeling Theory Society creates deviance through system of social control agencies that labels certain individuals as delinquent Initial delinquent act Detection by the justice system Decision to label Creation of a new identity Acceptance of labels Deviance amplification stigmatized youth locked into criminal careers o Self Labeling Person who has been negatively labeled accepts the label as a personal role or identity Selffulfilling prophecy as a result of internalized label, youth acts the way society expects them to ▯ Critical Theory Law defined by those who hold social and political power those in power use justice system to maintain their status while keeping others subservient the upperclass use the law as a means to control others and to meet any threats to its status
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