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Notes Week of 02/08/16

by: Rachel Schmuckler

Notes Week of 02/08/16 140

Marketplace > University of Delaware > General Science > 140 > Notes Week of 02 08 16
Rachel Schmuckler
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Lecture notes for Dyer ANFS140, Week 1
Functional Anatomy of Domestic Animals
Dr. Robert Dyer
Class Notes
tissues, animals, anatomy, epithelial, epithelium, muscle, nervous, nerve, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, zonula, occludes, adherens, connective, organ, organ systems, Cell




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 140 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Robert Dyer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Functional Anatomy of Domestic Animals in General Science at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Organ Systems and Tissue Types Organ Systems  Each system is anatomically distinguishable, but integrated together  11 major systems o Discrete Systems: we can see and feel it  Skeletal  Muscular  Digestive  Respiratory  Urinary  Reproductive  Integumentary  Skin  Protect  Secrete  Thermoregulate  Immunoregulate (“third arm of the immune system”) o Releases hormones from endocrine system that circulate causing inflammation)  Special senses (ears, eyes, nose) o Integrative Systems: distributed across and impacting all discrete systems  Nervous  Controlled by hypothalamus  Circulatory  Endocrine Organ Size by Mass of Body nerv s ulivre G lung sheatr allhers 2 % 2 % 2 %1 % 0 .3 % 1 % s nk 7 % Muslce blo o d 4 3 % 7 % sklto n 1 6 % Adipo s e 1 9 %  Muscle  fat  bones  Increasing age causes muscle to turn to fat  Blood = 7% of body weight  In lab, findings will show the integumentary system as the largest in the body because it can all be taken off, where muscle cannot fully be removed and weighed.  In the dairy industry, the goal of producers is to overfeed the cattle when lactating to increase the percent fat, maximizing milk production  Causes obesity related problems (Diabetes II, Cardiovascular Disease, Joint Diseases) because as the adipose tissue mass expands, the inflammatory response is triggered, causing damage and resistance General Chemical Composition of Body K Na,,Cl,Mg N C a P 1 % 3 % 1 % 1 % H 1 1 % C 1 7 % O 6 6 %  Ca and P from skeletal system o Ca can be soluble (in every cell) or solid  Oxygen and Hydrogen located everywhere because it is an integral part of amino acids, fats, and sugars o O2 also in water, body is 70% water  Carbon in amino acids, sugars, fats  Nitrogen in amino acids (proteins) Water Composition  1kg=1L  10-12% water loss is fatal  70% water by body weight  450kg horse has about 300L of water. A horse usually rids 120L of water a day that must be replaced. Compartments of Body Water  Extracellular water = 35%, intracellular water = 65%  Water exchange in/out of cell at 1000times/second  Dehydration occurs first in the extracellular environment, then the intracellular environment Four Tissue Types  Epithelium: covers any surface (external, internal)  Connective: adipose, bone, cartilage (hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage), fibrous (loose, irregular dense, dense fibrous) o Single stem cell that populated the embryonic body o Stem cells divide to daughter cells to form connective tissue  Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac o Skeletal: moves the skeleton o Smooth: visceral, retains dynamic movement o Cardiac: only muscle tissue in the heart o Striated = cardiac and skeletal  Nerve: composed of different types of tissue o Neurons are the functional units o Neurons hooked together to organize the system Every organ comprised of different types of tissue Cell sources for each type of tissue are very different from one another Epithelium  Line surfaces  Skin, forms all glands (regardless of type, even the mammary gland of the cow), lines ducts, organs, lines vascular system  Protect  Secretes hormones, immunities, coagulants (scabs) and anticoagulants (prevents blood clots)  Synthesize  Relates to synthetic and secretory functions  Classification: o Anatomic cell shape  Squamous – flat  Cuboidal – cube-like  Columnar – column-like Can only be simple o Number of cell layers  Simple – 1 layer  Stratified – multiple layers Most common with squamous  Pseudostratified – 1 layer appearing as multiple layers  Transitional – transforms from stratified appearing to a simple cell layer From simple squamous to cuboidal that is piled up on itself In organ systems that need to expand and contract (i.e. bladder) o i.e. Simple Squamous  Alveoli, vascular tree, kidney o i.e. Simple Cuboidal  Rare  Small bronchi, secretory ducts of lacrimal gland/pancreas/kidney/sweat glands/female reproductive tract o i.e. Simple Columnar  Trachea, gut, kidney o i.e. Pseudo-stratified  Airway, testes ducts Anatomic Structures are changing all the time  Stratified squamous o Can get thicker (i.e. callouses) o Skin – the number of layers in different areas changes o Bottom layer are stem cells that create daughter cells that move upward  Transitional is just an appearance (not actually stratified)  Pseudostratified is technically a layer with the nuclei located at different ends, causing different shapes o In the end, they are all somehow attached to the base layer Epithelial tissue turns over constantly  120 days for skin  5 days for gut  ~160 days for stomach  Epithelium covers surfaces and forms surface barriers  Membrane lies attached to another acellular membrane called the basal lamina (basement membrane)  All epithelia cells attach to the basal lamina regardless of location Basement membrane separates epithelium from underlying tissue  Left Photo: Bowel, lumen on top, columnar epithelium  Right: integument system, bottom where they look curvy are the stem cells that are pushing daughter cells upward, stem cells firmly attached to acellular membrane   Would repair dependent upon deposit of basement membrane o Stem cells sitting on the side of a wound speed up the rate of making daughter cells at the edge of a wound. Then, those daughter cells deposit more basement membrane along the wound before those stem cells can migrate across the wound and cover it up. o Varicose ulcers, diabetic wounds  People cannot deposit the membrane so the wounds won’t heal Cell Domains  Important when studying disease processes  Photos are a cross-section of a trachea, pseudostratified epithelium  Apical: outer domain, points toward surface  Lateral: side of the cell  Basal: inner domain, attaches to basal lamina Apical Domain  Microvilli o Fingerlike projections o Size, number, length, shape changes depending on cell function o Increase surface area of apical domain o Enhance absorptive function by keeping cells in contact with materials o Bowel, GI tract o Diseases/illnesses attack stem cells causing them not to function properly  No daughter cells are made, top is recycled, surface has less epithelial cells, microbes get inside and cause a fatal event, remaining cells spread out in attempt to cover surface, microvilli shorten, no absorption o Form as the cells migrate towards the surface o As microvilli move upward, they increase in # and length  Steriocilia o Cells that line the ducts of the male gentical tract o Long in length o More like microvilli in structure and function o Absorption of water  Tons of bulls/stallions – tons of semen, tons of water secreted, water needed to be absorbed to conserve water and concentrate ejaculate o Looks like a wet paintbrush  Cilia o Hairlike projections that project into the lumen o Ear ducts, respiratory tract ducts o Wavelike fashion to move stuff from lower lung to pharynx to clean/maintain sterility of the lung o Move independently of our breath o Chief modal modifications of apical domain o Millions per apical zone o Beat in unidirectional fashion to move secretions o Coordinated motion o Tons of synthesis necessary to make new cilia o Mucus sits on top of cilia, the cilia beat in coordinated fashion moving it from lower lung to high respiratory tract, causes us to swallow o Dirty air mixed with water and bacteria enter the lung with every breath  Excessive bacteria in lower lung = pneumonia  Surface of air-gas-exchange is sterile thanks to the mucus blanket and cilia activity that propels the mucus back up towards the pharyx Structure: Microvilli and Steriocilia  Apical domain along the bottom of the photo  Skeletal system o Cords of actin filaments packed into the wall to provide rigidity/structure o Myosin filaments act with actin to form a contractile unit Structure: Cilia  9 plus 2 microtubule arrangement = standard structure for modal agents (i.e. flagella, sperm cell, bacteria) o Cilia have tons of these in cross sections o Made of tubulin  Red and blue tubules that assemble together and line the entire length of the cilia  The tubules contract together  Attached  As one moves, it pulls the other in that direction Lateral Domain Modifications  Zonula Occludens o Circumferential band of close cell to cell adhesion closest to apical surface o Creates impermeable, selectively permeable barrier between cells o Gut wall o Not an attachment mechanism o Multiple proteins  Changing the structure of the proteins affects the strength capabilities of the attachments o Think Velcro!  Zonula Adherens o Circumferential band of tight cell to cell adhesions o Attaches lateral domains of cells firmly together o Zone of adhesion – tightly attaches the epithelial cells  The reason we can move our skin around o Easily modified with changes  Desmosomes o “spot weld” like cell to cell lateral domain attachments o Buttons between the walls of the cells that attach between cells o Tight adhesions o Randomly distributed around lateral domain  Zonula Occluden o Calcium dependent, in equilibrium with the body o Proteins will change over time and after synthesized  Strength constantly changing  Inflammation and diets can change the composition of proteins  Can increase/decrease permeability layer to affect which things (inflammatory inhibitors, etc) get into these cells  Poison ivy: blisters from inflammatory response because we are allergic to the poison ivy plant o Actin filaments are the skeletal system of all cells  Attached to the proteins that make up adhesion structures Basal Domain Modifications  Hemidesmosomes o Scattered throughout basal domain o Similar structure to half a desmosome o Attach basal domain firmly to basement membrane o Reason we can pick up our skin and have it stay attached to the underlying connective tissue o Prevents epithelia of the bowel from being stripped every time ingesta moves through o Synthesize the rebar/cement of basement membrane o Anchoring filaments – run fibrous tissue through the cement and wrap it around the fibrous tissue under epithelium to tie basement membrane down to deep collagen fibrous tissue o Loop through basement membrane and around collagen fibers of underlying fibrous tissue o Function to tie basement membrane to fibrous tissues o Attaches basal domain to basement membrane Glands  Epithelial tissue  Tubular – tube-like o Simple: sweat gland, female uterus to nourish fetus (early part of estrus cycle) o Simple coiled: longer simple tubular gland that lengthens as demand increases  Coiling in uterus driven by estrogen (later part of estrus cycle) o Simple branched: more complex than coiled (latest part of estrus cycle) o Estrus cycle changes gland shape every 21 days as the cycle goes on  Acinar/Alveolar – balloon or grape-like o Compound tubuloacinar: multiple simple branched acinar with aduct system  Salivary galnds, mammary glands, lacrimal glands, pancreas o Compound: mixed structures to deal with the crazy functions in these organ systems (i.e. pancreas)


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