Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes Soc 1020
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 1020 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Lambert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 1020 in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Sociology 1020 Buckel Professor Lambert Chapter 4- Social Structure and Interaction Levels of Sociological Analysis Macrosociology- large-scale features of social life o Looks at social structure Microsociology- looks at social interaction between people o To observe, one would have to be there in person watching the interactions Each yields a distinctive perspective but both are needed to gain a full understanding of social life Macrosociological Perspective Social Structure- the existing framework of a society, including the typical patterns of groups o Guides our behavior o Our behavior and attitudes are effected by our location in the social structure Major Components of Social Structure Culture, Social Class, Social Status (status sets, ascribed/achieved statuses, status symbols, master statuses, status inconsistencies), roles, groups, social instituions Culture A group’s language, beliefs, values, behaviors and gestures that are passed from one generation to the next Material and non-material culture Broad and far-reaching effects on our lives and the type of people we become Social Class People who have similar amounts of income, education levels, and jobs with comparable amounts of prestige, make up a social class Our social class has a great impact on our behaviors, ideas, and attitudes SES- socioeconomic status o Income, education, occupational prestige Social Status Social Status- a position that someone occupies (student, teacher, judge, astronaut, store-clerk, thief, etc.) o Statuses provide guidelines for how we act and feel o Statuses set limits on what can and cannot do Status Sets- all the statuses/positions that a person occupies (ex. Son, student, worker, husband) Ascribed vs Achieved Status o Ascribed- involuntary/not chosen- inherited at birth Race, ethnicity, sex, social class o Achieved Status- voluntary, can be earned or accomplished Can be positive or negative College president vs bank robber- you choose your life path Status Symbols- signs that identify a status Master Status- a status that cuts across other statuses Status Inconsistency- “mismatch” or discrepancy among one’s statuses Roles Role- the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status Role vs Status o You occupy a status, but you play a role Groups Group- consist of people who interact with one another and who feel that the values, interests, and norms they have in common are important Groups can be statuses, roles, social class, etc. but group must have shared values, interests and norms Social Institutions Social institutions- the standard ways that a society meets its basic needs There are ten social institutions in industrialized societies o Family, religion, education, the economy, medicine, politics, law, science, the military and mass media o Each institution satisfies a basic need and has its own groups, roles, values and norms Changes in Social Order What holds society together? o Emile Durkheim- mechanical and organic solidarity Mechanical Solidarity- shared beliefs between people that links the people to one another Organic Solidarity- social class and other factors that link people together o Ferdinand Tonnies- Gemeinschaft and Gesellshaft Gemeinschaft- how people in society relate to one another Gesellshaft- the way we interact with people Microagressions- verbal/nonverbal/symbolic factors of life (either intentional or unintentional) that are derogatory or negative attacks on a person based on their appearance What is relevant today? o Social structure is continuously evolving as it responds to changing values/norms o In part, these same changes have given rise to Islamic Fundamentalism Microsociological Perspective Stereotypes in everyday life Personal space o Intimate distance, personal distance, social distance and public distance Eye contact Smiling Body language Applied body language Erving Goffman and Dramaturgy The presentation of self in everyday life Erving Goffman and Dramaturgy Impression management Front stages and back stages o Front Stage- your “performance” as a person when other people are around, an “audience” o Back Stage- your private self (how you act when nobody is home) o Actors in a play are “in” character when performing in front of the audience, but no longer perform once they go behind the curtain Role performance Role conflict (between roles) Role strain (within a role) Teamwork and face-saving behavior Ethnomethodology- Uncovering Background Assumptions Harold Garfinkle’s experiments using ethnomethodology to reveal background assumptions Ethnomethodology- the study of how people use common sense understandings to make sense of life; study of background assumptions o Background Assumptions- taken-for-granted ideas about the way the world is and the way things ought to work Social Construction of Reality Thomas Theorem and definition of the situation- the way people define a situation is what matters Social Construction of Reality- reality does not depend on the objective existence of something, but rather reality depends on how we have learned to interpret our experiences o Ex) germs and watermelon (pg 117) o Gynecological examinations, teamwork, and the construction of reality A Need for both Macrosociology and Microsociology Understanding is incomplete without both William Chambliss Research o Middle-class “saints” from “good” families and the lower-class “roughnecks” Grasping both social structure and social interaction o Macro/Structure- opportunities are either open or closed to people depending on their social class o Micro/Interaction- follow them through their everyday lives and determine that people learn different goals as they grow up in different groups
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