KIN 199, Chp. 2 Notes
KIN 199, Chp. 2 Notes KIN 199
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Fendley on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 199 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Colleen Geary in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Ecol Appr Hlth & Fitness in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter Two Principles of Physical Fitness Physical activity: body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles that requires energy Exercise: planned, structured, repetitive movement intended to improve of maintain physical fitness 1. Physical Activity and Exercise a. Levels of physical activity have declined in recent years and remain low for all Americans b. The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the following: i. 62% participate in some leisure activity ii. 38% are physically inactive iii. Of those that exercise, only 12% exercise at least 5 times per week at an intensive level iv. 80% of Americans with graduate degrees exercise compared to only 40% of high school dropouts c. Levels of fitness depend on the following i. Your heart’s ability to pump blood ii. Size of your muscle fibers d. Only exercise will significantly improve fitness i. Physical activity will help you be healthy, but not improve your fitness e. Your heart rate (HR) is beats/minute i. A decreased resting heart rate is a good thing f. Your stroke volume (SV) is blood/beat g. Your cardiac output (Q) = HR * SV i. Or blood/minute ii. In order for your cardiac output to be balance, a decreasing heart rate must be matched by an increasing stroke volume h. Adults should do at least 150 minutes (or 2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) a week of vigorous- intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both i. As reported by the U.S. department of Human Services (2008) ii. Moderate physical activity= brisk walking, dancing, cycling, yard work iii. If you can sing a song or carry on a conversation while performing the activity, it is light-intensity iv. Vigorous physical activity causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate v. Doubling your daily exercise to just an hour a day promotes more extensive health benefits vi. Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days of the week to provide additional health benefits 1. Physical fitness requires more intense movement that poses a substantially greater challenge to the body vii. Fit people have more energy and better body control 1. Any increase in physical activity will contribute to your health and well-being now and in the future i. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans states: i. Regular physical activity reduces the risk of many adverse health outcomes ii. Most health benefits occur with at least 150 mins (2.5 hrs) a week of moderate-intensity physical activity 2. Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness a. Health-related fitness includes cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition b. Health-related fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and protects you from diseases Health-related fitness: The 5 physical capacities that contribute to health c. Cardiorespiratory Endurance i. The ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity ii. Depends on: 1. The ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen from the environment to the bloodstream 2. The capacity of the heart to pump blood 3. The ability of the nervous system and blood vessels to regulate blood flow 4. The capability of the cells’ chemical systems to use oxygen and process fuels for exercise iii. When cardiorespiratory fitness is low, the heart has to work hard during normal daily activities and may not be able to work hard enough to sustain high-intensity physical activity when needed iv. As cardiorespiratory fitness improves: 1. The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat 2. Resting heart rate slows down 3. Blood volume increases 4. Blood supply to tissues improves 5. The body can cool itself more efficiently 6. Resting blood pressure decreases 7. Metabolism in skeletal muscle is enhanced, which improves fuel use 8. Resistance and aerobic training increases the level of antioxidant chemicals in the body and lowers oxidative stress v. Endurance training also improves the functioning of the body’s chemical systems, particularly in the muscles and liver vi. You can develop cardiorespiratory endurance through activities that involve continuous, rhythmic movements of large-muscle groups 1. Such as the legs 2. The most important aspect because it strengthens the heart d. Muscular Strength i. The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort ii. Depends on: 1. The size of muscle cells 2. The ability of nerves to activate muscle cells iii. Greater muscle mass means a higher rate of metabolism and faster energy use 1. Also reduces markers of oxidative stress and maintains mitochondria, both of which are important for metabolic health and longevity iv. Older people tend to experience a decrease in both number and size of muscle cells, a condition called sarcopenia 1. Many of the remaining muscle cells become slower, and some become nonfunctional v. Strength training (resistance/weight training) increases antioxidant enzymes and lowers oxidative stress 1. Also helps maintain muscle mass and function and possibly helps decrease the risk of osteoporosis (bone loss) in older people e. Muscular Endurance i. The ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of muscle tension— that is, to hold a muscle contraction or to contract a muscle over and over again ii. Depends on: 1. The size of the muscle cells 2. The ability of muscles to store fuel 3. The blood supply to muscles iii. Important for good posture and for injury prevention iv. Helps people cops with daily physical demands and enhances performance in sports and work f. Flexibility i. The ability to move the joints through their full range of motion ii. Depends on: 1. Joint structure 2. The length and elasticity of connective tissue 3. Nervous system activity iii. Inactivity causes the joints to become stiffer with age 1. Eventually causes people to assume unnatural body postures that can stress joints and muscles iv. Stretching exercises can help ensure a healthy range of motion for all major joints g. Body Composition i. Refers to the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone and water) in the body ii. Involves a high proportion of fat-free mass and ac acceptably low level of body fat, adjusted for age and gender iii. The only one that cannot be changed by itself iv. Ectomorph 1. Light build with small joints and lean muscle 2. Long thin limbs with stringy muscles 3. Shoulders tend to be thin with little width 4. Delicate frame, flat chest, fast metabolism, hard to gain weight v. Mesomorph 1. Large bone structure and muscles 2. Naturally athletic physique 3. Can easily gain and lose weight 4. Rectangular-shaped body vi. Endomorph 1. Solid and generally soft and round body 2. Gains fat very easily and finds it hard to lose 3. Short build with thick arms and legs 4. Muscles strong, especially the upper legs 5. Slow metabolism vii. Body Shapes 1. Apple a. Distribution of body fat stored in upper regions of body, particularly in abdominal area b. Worse body shape to have than a pear 2. Pear a. Distribution of body fat stored in lower regions of body, particularly in hips, butt, and thighs 3. Skill (Neuromuscular) - Related Components of Fitness a. Speed i. The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time b. Power i. The ability to exert force rapidly, based on a combination of strength and speed c. Agility i. The ability to change the position of the body quickly and accurately d. Balance i. The ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or while stationary e. Coordination i. The ability to perform motor tasks accurately and smoothly using body movements and the senses f. Reaction and Movement Time i. The ability to respond and react quickly to a stimulus g. Skill-related fitness tends to be sport-specific, and is best developed through practice 4. Adaptation to Stress a. The human body is very adaptable b. Exercise is innately dangerous as it is a huge stress on the body, but the benefits outweigh the risks c. The greater the demand is imposed on the body, the more adjustments are needed to make to meet these demands d. The goal of physical training is to produce long-term adaptations and improvements in the body’s functioning Physical training: the performance of different types of activities that cause the body to adapt and improve its level of fitness e. The basic principles of physical training include specificity, progressive overload, reversibility, and individual differences f. Specificity i. The training principle that the body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it ii. Applies to the skill-related fitness components and to the different parts of the body g. Progressive Overload i. When the amount of exercise (also caller overload, or stress) is increased progressively, fitness continues to improve ii. The amount of overload is important, because too little will not have much effect on fitness levels 1. For every type of exercise, there’s a training threshold at which fitness benefits begin to occur, a zone within which maximum fitness benefits occur, and an upper limit of safe training iii. Progression is critical because fitness increases only if the volume and intensity of the workouts increase iv. FTIT Principle 1. The four dimensions that outline the amount of overload needed to maintain or improve a particular level of fitness 2. F—frequency a. How often b. 3-5 days per week for cardiorespiratory endurance, and 2 or more days per week for resistance and flexibility training is recommended 3. I—intensity a. How hard b. Benefits occur when a person exercises harder than his or her normal level of activity 4. T—time a. How long b. For cardiorespiratory endurance, 20-60 mins is recommended c. 20-30 mins for high-intensity d. 45-60 mins for moderate-intensity 5. T—type a. Mode of activity h. Reversibility i. Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered ii. When a person stops exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months iii. Strength fitness is more resilient than cardiovascular and cellular fitness i. Individual Differences i. People respond to training at different rates, and there are limits on the adaptability of any human body 1. A program that works for one person may not be right for another person ii. Scientists have identified specific genes that influence body fat, strength, and endurance 5. Designing Your Own Exercise Program a. A plan helps you make gradual but steady progress toward your goals b. Get medical clearance i. People of any age who are not at high-risk for serious health problems can safely exercise at a moderate intensity ii. Exercise stress test iii. Graded exercise test c. Assess yourself and set goals d. Choose activities for a balance program i. Cardiorespiratory endurance is developed by continuous rhythmic movement of large-muscle groups ii. Muscular strength and endurance is developed through resistance training iii. Flexibility is developed by stretching the major muscle groups regularly and using proper technique iv. Healthy body composition is developed through sensible diet and regular exercise 6. Guidelines for Training a. Train the way you want your body to change b. Train regularly c. Start slowly and progress gradually i. Beginning phase: the body adjusts to the new type and level of activity ii. Progress phase: fitness increases iii. Maintenance phase: the targeted level of fitness is sustained over the long term iv. Overtraining results in decreased physical performance, and aching muscles and joints d. Warm up before exercise, and cool down after e. Get rest and cycle the intensity of your workouts f. Track your progress and maintain
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