February 2 Ascent of Europe Weekly notes
February 2 Ascent of Europe Weekly notes HIST 031
Popular in The Ascent of Europe
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Shore on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 031 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Benjamin Nathans, Thomas Max Safley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see The Ascent of Europe in History at University of Pennsylvania.
Reviews for February 2 Ascent of Europe Weekly notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/16/16
Sophie Shore February 2, 2016 The Old World Reaches Out From the journal of Christopher Columbus (14511506) o The Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic ocean These voyages, and his efforts to establish a permanent settlement on the island of Hispaniola The voyages of Exploration as a culmination of long term change and development o Recall what you have learned Development of maritime technology and technique Expansionist policies and wars Changing politico economic conditions in the Mediterranean Social and cultural crisis in Europe o In 1492 no one grasped the magnitude of the developments and discoveries It was in fact a new world Bacon’s reference to the compass signifies developments in maritime technologies, which also experienced a 15 century revolution o The navigational compass was the least revolutionary change; it had been in use for centuries Like other inventions, it appears to have reached the west from China Western development attributed to Alexander Neckham in the 12 century o Other navigational aides developed through trial and error Portolan Navigational technologies: declination, currents Prince Henry “The Navigator” and Sagres Castle in Portugal Astrolabe Cross staff Ship building and rigging kept pace with navigation o Various hull types, based on different cages, were common in the Middle Ages Clinkerbuilt, using overlapping strakes Viking long boat Baltic cog Carvelbuilt, using edge to edge strakes Caravel o Carvel hulls permitted the construction of larger, stronger hulls, capable of taking a variety of riggings Caravella redonda (squarerigged) Caravella latina (lateenrigged); can sail across the wind Carrack o The Spanish and Portuguese use these ships to explore the western seas The importance of trade with Asia o No one grasped the importance of Columbus’s discovery Sophie Shore No one had any way of knowing Everyone was focused on trade routes to Asia o Most of Europe’s most prized luxury goods originated in Asia Spices from S. and SE Asia Silks from China Gems from a variety of places o Industrial commodities gain importance in the 15 century Cotton from Egypt Alum from the Middle East Sugar from North Africa and Mediterranean islands Slaves from the Middle East and Africa o All of these goods flow through the Mediterranean All subject to the Ottomans European merchants driven to seek reliable economical sources of supply o Portuguese seek the east by travelling south Efforts promoted by the state Gradual accumulation of o Spanish seek the east by traveling west Columbus as an innovator and entrepreneur Attempts the Atlantic crossing using his own methods he developed and funds he raised Never realized what he had discovered The initial returns were political and economical Are these voyages indicative of the Ascent of Europe? o What makes them so? Should we consider the intentions of the voyagers and their sponsors? Or, are the outcomes all that matter? To what extent should your assessment include the reactions of those natives who were directly affected? o s February 4, 2016 Document o A letter by Amerigo Vespucci (14521512) to Pier Soderini A Florentine merchant, working in Seville Outfitter of Columbus Participated in Portuguese voyages to the New World Participated in the discovery of Brazil and exploration of the Atlantic coast of South America o Published two letters between 1502 and 1504 Claims to have made four voyages Only two are certain Modern scholars suspect forgery o Letters published by Martin Waldsermuller, 1507 Sophie Shore Names New World “Amerige” So it became known to the public Missionaries o St. Francis Xavier, SJ (15061552) One of the founding members of the Societatis Jesu A comparison of St. Ignatius Loyola Missionary to South and East Asia “Apostle to the Indies” o Wrote letters to his fellow Jesuits Described missionary work in detail Circulated widely among the members Served as personal communiqués Contributed to esprit de corps A basis for reflection, mediation, correction o Consider the wider issues How did he view indigenous peoples? What were his intentions? How did he support Portuguese interests? Missionaries as critiques of the colonial enterprise o Force colonial powers to change policies Emphasize legitimate right to rule Spanish do not employ the term “colony” until 18 century America is the “Kingdom of the Indies” o Part of the empire, like any other o Create an institutional fiction New World as a selfgoverning part of the Spanish Empire, administratively like others Consejo Real y Supremo de las India Casa de la Contratacion Cajas reales Viceroys Audiencias Pueblas y corregidores Encomienda o Cultural “Hispanisization” and marginalization Function of the Catholic Church in the Colonial Enterprise o Like imperial government, the Church existed as two largely separate entities A secular church of metropolitan bishops and parish priests Similar to the international Catholic Church based in Rome o Served Spaniards and natives o The misiones or reducciones, were directed by missionary orders, such as the Franciscans and the Jesuits Largely independent of Catholic Church and Spanish Empire Sophie Shore Evolved into independent parishes that served indigenous peoples o The coexistence of two independent structures created conflict Who controlled the indigenous parishes? Who benefitted from their productivity? The church and the misiones become instruments of oppression o Even those who advocated humane treatment participated in mistreatment and exploitation The highest goal was spiritual salvation This required conversion and Europeanization How to achieve these goals? Mass conversion? An “Indian church” with Indian priests o In the pursuit of conversion, misiones and reducciones become venues of true cultural exchange Missionaries study and preserve native languages and culture o And they the same time, they integrate and discipline Effectively destroying native culture Spanish government makes use of the missions o Discipline and integrate Make them Spanish subjects o Fix the border The reducciones become defensive points o Become productive Adopt European methods of agriculture and manufacture Produce for the European global market o The missions “fix” and “settle” indigenous peoples Create European communities even as they study native ways o Missionaries sought to protect natives Made enemies of the Spaniards Betrayed the natives
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'