New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

February 2 Ascent of Europe Weekly notes

by: Sophia Shore

February 2 Ascent of Europe Weekly notes HIST 031

Marketplace > University of Pennsylvania > History > HIST 031 > February 2 Ascent of Europe Weekly notes
Sophia Shore
GPA 3.65

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Weekly notes for Ascent of Europe, on the Renaissance.
The Ascent of Europe
Benjamin Nathans, Thomas Max Safley
Class Notes
history, europe, Renaissance
25 ?




Popular in The Ascent of Europe

Popular in History

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Shore on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 031 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Benjamin Nathans, Thomas Max Safley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see The Ascent of Europe in History at University of Pennsylvania.

Similar to HIST 031 at Penn


Reviews for February 2 Ascent of Europe Weekly notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/16/16
Sophie Shore  February 2, 2016  The Old World Reaches Out  From the journal of Christopher Columbus (1451­1506) o The Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa  Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four  voyages across the Atlantic ocean   These voyages, and his efforts to establish a permanent settlement  on the island of Hispaniola   The voyages of Exploration as a culmination of long term change and development  o Recall what you have learned  Development of maritime technology and technique  Expansionist policies and wars  Changing politico economic conditions in the Mediterranean  Social and cultural crisis in Europe  o In 1492 no one grasped the magnitude of the developments and discoveries  It was in fact a new world  Bacon’s reference to the compass signifies developments in maritime technologies,  which also experienced a 15  century revolution o The navigational compass was the least revolutionary change; it had been in use  for centuries  Like other inventions, it appears to have reached the west from China  Western development attributed to Alexander Neckham in the 12  century o Other navigational aides developed through trial and error  Portolan  Navigational technologies: declination, currents  Prince Henry “The Navigator” and Sagres Castle in Portugal   Astrolabe  Cross staff  Ship building and rigging kept pace with navigation o Various hull types, based on different cages, were common in the Middle Ages  Clinker­built, using overlapping strakes  Viking long boat  Baltic cog  Carvel­built, using edge to edge strakes  Caravel  o Carvel hulls permitted the construction of larger, stronger hulls, capable of taking  a variety of riggings   Caravella redonda (square­rigged)  Caravella latina (lateen­rigged); can sail across the wind   Carrack  o The Spanish and Portuguese use these ships to explore the western seas   The importance of trade with Asia o No one grasped the importance of Columbus’s discovery Sophie Shore   No one had any way of knowing   Everyone was focused on trade routes to Asia  o Most of Europe’s most prized luxury goods originated in Asia  Spices from S. and SE Asia  Silks from China  Gems from a variety of places  o Industrial commodities gain importance in the 15  century  Cotton from Egypt  Alum from the Middle East  Sugar from North Africa and Mediterranean islands  Slaves from the Middle East and Africa  o All of these goods flow through the Mediterranean   All subject to the Ottomans   European merchants driven to seek reliable economical sources of supply o Portuguese seek the east by travelling south   Efforts promoted by the state  Gradual accumulation of  o Spanish seek the east by traveling west  Columbus as an innovator and entrepreneur  Attempts the Atlantic crossing using his own methods he  developed and funds he raised  Never realized what he had discovered  The initial returns were political and economical   Are these voyages indicative of the Ascent of Europe? o What makes them so?  Should we consider the intentions of the voyagers and their sponsors?  Or, are the outcomes all that matter?  To what extent should your assessment include the reactions of those  natives who were directly affected? o s February 4, 2016  Document o A letter by Amerigo Vespucci (1452­1512) to Pier Soderini  A Florentine merchant, working in Seville   Outfitter of Columbus  Participated in Portuguese voyages to the New World  Participated in the discovery of Brazil and exploration of the  Atlantic coast of South America  o Published two letters between 1502 and 1504  Claims to have made four voyages  Only two are certain   Modern scholars suspect forgery o Letters published by Martin Waldsermuller, 1507 Sophie Shore   Names New World “Amerige”   So it became known to the public   Missionaries o St. Francis Xavier, SJ (1506­1552)  One of the founding members of the Societatis Jesu   A comparison of St. Ignatius Loyola  Missionary to South and East Asia  “Apostle to the Indies” o Wrote letters to his fellow Jesuits  Described missionary work in detail   Circulated widely among the members   Served as personal communiqués   Contributed to esprit de corps  A basis for reflection, mediation, correction  o Consider the wider issues   How did he view indigenous peoples?  What were his intentions?  How did he support Portuguese interests?  Missionaries as critiques of the colonial enterprise  o Force colonial powers to change policies  Emphasize legitimate right to rule  Spanish do not employ the term “colony” until 18  century   America is the “Kingdom of the Indies”  o Part of the empire, like any other  o Create an institutional fiction  New World as a self­governing part of the Spanish Empire,  administratively like others  Consejo Real y Supremo de las India  Casa de la Contratacion   Cajas reales  Viceroys  Audiencias  Pueblas y corregidores  Encomienda  o Cultural “Hispanisization” and marginalization   Function of the Catholic Church in the Colonial Enterprise o Like imperial government, the Church existed as two largely separate entities  A secular church of metropolitan bishops and parish priests  Similar to the international Catholic Church based in Rome  o Served Spaniards and natives  o The misiones or reducciones, were directed by missionary orders, such as the  Franciscans and the Jesuits  Largely independent of Catholic Church and Spanish Empire  Sophie Shore   Evolved into independent parishes that served indigenous peoples  o The coexistence of two independent structures created conflict  Who controlled the indigenous parishes?  Who benefitted from their productivity?  The church and the misiones become instruments of oppression o Even those who advocated humane treatment participated in mistreatment and  exploitation  The highest goal was spiritual salvation   This required conversion and Europeanization   How to achieve these goals?  Mass conversion?  An “Indian church” with Indian priests  o In the pursuit of conversion, misiones and reducciones become venues of true  cultural exchange  Missionaries study and preserve native languages and culture o And they the same time, they integrate and discipline  Effectively destroying native culture   Spanish government makes use of the missions o Discipline and integrate  Make them Spanish subjects o Fix the border  The reducciones become defensive points o Become productive  Adopt European methods of agriculture and manufacture   Produce for the European global market o The missions “fix” and “settle” indigenous peoples   Create European communities even as they study native ways  o Missionaries sought to protect natives  Made enemies of the Spaniards  Betrayed the natives 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.