Ascent of Europe Week of February 9 notes
Ascent of Europe Week of February 9 notes HIST 031
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Shore on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 031 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Benjamin Nathans, Thomas Max Safley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see The Ascent of Europe in History at University of Pennsylvania.
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February 9, 2016 The Reformations and the Encounter: Michel de Montaigne: “On Cannibals” Writes after only a conversation o Montaigne captures an intellectual aspect of “the encounter” between Old world and New Examination and selfexamination o Reference to “religion” indicates his awareness of current events The Reformation as a cause of “barbarism” o Links between encounter and Reformation Lee Wandel’s The Reformation: Towards a New History o Points of comparison Resonance of cannibalism with Eucharist Rejection of heterodox religious practices Concern for conformity Crisis of confidence Martin Luther (14831546) and his reforms of religion o The 95 Theses of 1517 o Luther’s personality Psychological crisis: How can I be certain? An epistemological question hidden in a matter of faith His words become violent as he ages; he loves to drink o His invitation to university debate, inspires many people far beyond the walls of the academy Instant fame, for which Luther may not have been prepared Instant misunderstanding, criticism, and opposition, which hardened Luther’s thinking The Peasant’s Revolt of 1525 o Rebels should be killed “like mad dogs” His theological opponents o Schwarmer (fanatics) should be persecuted The Jews o The Jews should be expelled o Luther as a friar If he leads the life of the monk, he will be saved; he would beat himself and pray all night long, but no peace of mind He completed theological degree at Wittenberg “The just shall live by faith:” humankind cannot please god without faith, so faith brings Grace, and good works follow John Calvin (15091564): Reform as a political movement o Like Luther, Calvin tolerated no opposition One God, one Bible, one truth Consensus among Christian thinkers was capitalized on The execution of Miguel Servetus, 1553 Servetus describes Calvin’s god as Cerberus Servetus was executed for heresy o Little is known of Calvin’s early life A refugee Trained as a jurist; selftaught theologian o Makes his career at Geneva Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536): he masters all fathers, Luther, etc. he writes it Transformed reform movement into international stage A genius at systematic thought A genius at organization Creates adaptable, durable church institutions o At left Portrait of young Calvin (Hans Holbein the Younger) Institutes of the Christian Religion (1559) The case for religious toleration and freedom of conscience o The violence and bloodshed of the Reformation gave some people pause The majority still held toleration for indifference Let every soul go to hell in its own way An “intolerable” attitude o Prereformation sources of toleration Mysticism Mystical sensation of personal relationship with god and an individual Christian through meditation, so church doesn’t matter Humanism o Prerequisites for persecution Conviction that one is right Conviction that the issue is important Conviction that coercion is effective o Sebastian Castellio (15151563): a voice for tolerance Loathed Calvin’s killing of Servetus Experience, revelation and reason Senses, god reveals them, or we reason them out with our mind; the first two are subject to the third o Faith is incapable of proof o At left: religious execution; Castellio Reformation showed the incompatibility of the cross and the stake; it raised the question of freedom of conscience o Yet, religious intolerance remained the order of the day In America, it remains the order of the day o People continued to believe that no society could tolerate religious plurality Put another way, the vast majority of people were convinced that cultures other than their own were dangerous They needed to conform, or they had to be exterminated o Questions Why is this so? How does it affect the historical reality of the “ascent of Europe?” Is it in fact unique to Europe? February 11, 2016 o Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) The Schmalkaldic War in the Holy Roman Empire Empire ruled by the Hapsburg, Charles V, a devout Catholic o Outlaws Luther and Lutheranism at Diet of Worms 1522 o Protestation of Speyer, 1529 Evangelical regents group together in a defensive, League of Schmalkalden, in 1531 o Decide on a first strike, when Charles begins to mobilize in 1546 League defeated at Muhlberg in 1547 o Forced to accept Augsburg Interim in 1548 Edict prompts renewed hostilities in 1552 o Charles defeated and forced to accept Peace of Passau Religious Peace of Augsburg o “Cuius region, eius religio” o Status quo ante o Whatever they decided was final, Catholic or Evangelical, all subjects had to convert or leave – emperor couldn’t interfere and so he abdicates in shame The Schmalkaldic War has long lasting political results Establishment of local autonomy in matters of religion Religion and politics inspire violence across Europe Even domestic issues become highly charged o The question of legitimate issue, i.e. children o Catholics would not recognize evangelical marriages; kids can’t inherit so estates go away The resort to violence reflects the importance of the issues o People are slow to grasp the futility of violence in matters of faith Is this a religious war? Not really – more political – princes who join war want only to preserve central authority Sebastian Castellio Michel de Montaigne The Dutch Revolt These territories also ruled by the House of Hapsburg o Charles V’s complicated inheritance He rules the largest land empire since the Roman Empire He abdicates in 1559 The Holy Roman Empire passes to his brother Ferdinand I Spain and the Netherlands go to his son, Philip II o Philip leaves the Netherlands in the hands of his halfsister Margaret of Parma and a Council of State Philip is interventionist Reduce political autonomy Wipe out religious heresy Netherlandish prosperity resulted from its independence and its diversity o The city of Antwerp Resistance solidifies into open revolt o The count of Egmont and William of Orange o Iconoclastic Fury 1566 The Spanish respond with force and fail Philip orders the Duke of Alva with an army to suppress the revolt o The “Council of Blood” o The “Spanish Fury” sacking towns Resistance hardens by 1579 o A Catholic south in Spanish hands (Belgium) o A Calvinist north in revolt (Holland) The Twelve Year Truce in 1609 o Grants virtual independence o Not formalized until 1648 Catholics unable to suppress Protestant resistance by force o The limits of political institutions The French Wars of Religion begin by accident Henry II killed in a jousting tournament, 1559 o His opponent is a Calvinist o Rumors of a Calvinist attempt to seize power Henry succeeded by his minor son, Francis II o A regency under his mother, Catherine de Medici Regencies are notoriously weak o Rule in the king’s name but without his person Three aristocratic families vie for power o The Catholic Guise o The Calvinist Bourbon o The Calvinist MontmorencyChatillons The Admiral de Coligny The desire for local autonomy The conflict spreads The January Edict, 1552 o Liberalization of worship for Huguenots (4 cities) o The massacre at Vassey Huguenot forces, led by Coligny, defeat royal armies and force further concessions, 1570 o Freedom of worship to Huguenots St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572 o Fearing Huguenot control of monarchy, Catherine engineers a slaughter of leaders Wedding of Huguenot to king’s sister Across France over 20,000 die War ends in 1598 with the accession of Henry IV, a Bourbon and former Huguenot o “Paris is worth a mass” o Edict of Nantes The 30 year’s war erupts in Bohemia Bohemia is surprisingly similar to the Netherlands in several respects o Accustomed to electing their regent o Accustomed to maintaining local privileges and immunities from a distant regent o Accustomed to religious flexibility A hotbed of Calvinism The Hapsburg monarch, Ferdinand II, is like his distant relative, Philip II o Educated by Jesuits, a staunch Catholic A bitter opponent of Protestantism in all forms o Determined to establish his unlimited authority in Bohemia Resistance stiffens quickly in Bohemia Defenestration of Prague Election of Frederick V o The Winter King o Battle of White Mountain, 1619 Ferdinand proceeds to wipe out Calvinism and execute Calvinist leaders in Bohemia o Protestants fear this is the first step in a larger campaign against them throughout Hapsburg territories War spreads across Europe in three phases The Danish Phase (16251629) o Protestant forces led by Christian IV of Denmark Without material aid, quickly defeated o Edict of Restitution 1629 Alarms Protestants and Catholics alike The Swedish Phase (163035) o Protestant forces of Gustavus Adolphus One of the ablest warrior kings of the early modern period Led armies that were well trained well supplied and well led Defeat imperial forces and turn the tide The Peace of Prague 1635 o France and Sweden refuse to sign The French Phase (16361648) o Protestant forces joined by The Catholic French The foreign policy of Cardinal Richelieu o The empire is laid waste by marauding armies One third of its population lost Grimmelshausen’s Adventist of Simplicissimus s o D o s