Chapter 29 Plant Diversity: Spore Plants
Chapter 29 Plant Diversity: Spore Plants BSC 120
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by fwmartin on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 120 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Martha Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Honors Gen Biology II in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 29 Plant Diversity: Spore Plants (=Seedless Plants) Evolved from green algae Two groups: mosses and ferns (have vascular tissue) Bryophytes (Mosses)(earliest Land plants) • Waxy cuticle to help prevent dehydration • Protects developing embryo Mosses still need water to reproduce and survive • sperms (with flagella) need water to reach the egg with the female gametangium • no true vascular tissue to suck up the water • most are found in moist and shady places. Not completely adapted for land • No true roots; just an underground stem (called rhizoids) (“working on learning how to become a large plant”) • Leaves are small • Gametophyte on ground – could be eaten easily by predators when they arrive • Cell walls lack lignin (the wall hardening material that allows plants to stand tall) Help form soil – can grow in low-nutrient soils; on trees; on rocks. Life Cycle: longest time as a Gametophore, which is haploid Once fertilized it will release spores that are un-flagellated. The capsule will open and release the spores when it is dry. Antheridia produces Sperm (flagellated). Archegonia produces Eggs The spores have thick walls which let them survive on the ground until it rains or they reach water which allow them to germinate. Fun Fact: Moss spores do not cause allergies. Important Mosses: Sphagnum (peat moss) carpet carpet at least 3% of the modern earth’s surface.▯ o added to garden soils to retain moisture▯ during WWII used for wounds (medicinal) o It produces antiseptics and soaks up blood and bacteria o cut into “bricks” for fuel, especially Scotland § contains lots of carbon and burns well once dried NOT mosses are a. reindeer moss – it is a lichen▯ b. Spanish moss – it is a flowering plant▯ c. club moss-it is a relative of ferns Mosses were alone for 500,000 years but then came… Ferns Take Adaptation to Land to the Next Level. There are over 12,000 known living species of ferns. Many are also found in the fossil record. § Gametophyte is reduced § Sporophyte is dominant § Vascular tissue hardened with lignin o Can become tall § Still depend on water because sperm has flagella and swim through water to fertilize the egg. § Underground stem = rhizome. Structures o Gametophyte –heart shaped o Sporophyte - frond (groups of sporangia called sori contain spores) o Underground stem – not true roots = rhizome o Can become tall Fun Fact: Lady Gaga has a fern named after her:
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