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Astro Notes

by: Brandon Carpenter

Astro Notes ASTR 1010

Brandon Carpenter
Clayton State
GPA 2.8
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Solar System Astronomy
Harold Banke
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Carpenter on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1010 at Clayton State University taught by Harold Banke in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Astronomy notes Astronomy Notes Geocentric viewpoint- everything revolves around us. Heliocentric viewpoint- we revolve around the sun but not center of universe. Cosmic address: the location in the universe. 1. Planet 2.Moon 3.Star 4.Solar System 5.Galaxy 6. Universe Andromeda Galaxy is 2.4 million light years away Light year is the distance light travels in a year. Light minute is the distance light travels in a minute. Universe is expanding from a small point created from a "big bang" Hydrogen is main composition of starts, two hydrogen atoms fusion producing helium. Supernova is an exploding star. Most stars come in pairs. There are 100 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy. The super nova caused the elements to get out of stars. 24,000 miles around the earth at the equator = 24 hrs to go around the curve. This is basically 1000 miles an hour rotational speed. Revolutionary speed is about 60,000 miles per hour. Can't tell motion when motion is constant, only the change in motion. Astronomical unit is the distance from sun to earth. 230million year orbit, rotation of galaxy is about 800,000km/hrs or 500,000m/hr. Dark matter has gravity but does not reflect/emit light, this holds the stars in orbit Dark energy is causing the universe to go faster and faster Edwin Hubble 1920's discovered we were not the only galaxy, every other galaxy APPEARS to be moving away from us, farther away from us the faster they travel away from us. There is nothing to compare speed to so we can’t tell how fast we as a planet actually are moving. Took us 13.5 billion years to get we are now. Stars in our galaxy is fixed, they are not getting bigger nor is the galaxy. The space of the universe between galaxies are expanded, 6000 total stars are able to be seen in the best conditions at night. 60th of a second is the time that light is allowed into our eyes. Stars that looked to be in the same area relative to us are names constellations. Winter Triangle contains: Betelgeuse, Rigel and Sirius. Canis Major star group, named big dawg, Sirius is part of this group Sirius is the 4th brightest light in the sky most nights; it’s very close and the brightest. Order of brightest to weakest: sun, moon, Saturn and then Sirius. Babylonians looked to see the sun come up against background of different stars every day. This would be their time tracking ability, every day there would be different stars until eventually they came back to the same. They broke up the times of the year that the sun would be the same place, became our months eventually. 12 constellations for 12 months, Started their year in the constellation Aries Eventually 88 constellations came about for 88 sections by the international astronomical union. Useful to know where they are so people can know what you're looking at, narrows locations in the skies. Gave us ways to name stars that are out there in the sky. Would say Alpha Canis Majoris for the astronomical name for Sirius. Means that it is the brightest of Canis Major group. Alpha Centari means that it’s the brightest star in the constellation Centaurus. The ‘I’ ending means "of", alpha means brightest. Ancient romans believe the sky was a crystal sphere and thought the stars were dots of light. Believed that we were rotating in the center of this "celestial sphere" Used to describe the apparent sphere of the sky around us, landmarks for navigating at night. The point that appears to not turn at all refers to the "north celestial pole" at the North Pole of the earth. The point that appears to not turn at all refers to the "south celestial pole" at the South Pole of the earth. Split in the middle of the earth would be a dividing line of north and south hemisphere of the sky, known as the "celestial equator" Another point is the "ecliptic" that appears to be moving around this celestial sphere. Greeks had a myth (explanation about something that is mysterious) about this strange swathe of milky stuff during the summer. Believe that this swathe was god having spilled milk onto the sky, "milky way" Greek word for milk was 'galaxy'. Galileo saw this swathe through telescope and discovered it was a lot of stars condensed and was the actually galaxy. Local sky is the half of the sky above you, the zenith is the point directly above your head. Zenith is 90 degrees about the horizon is the altitude, top point in the pole is the north celestial pole. Stars rotate counterclockwise around the zenith of the north celestial pole. Polaris is at the north celestial pole. Polaris (North Star) doesn’t seem to turn at all. Will have to look at the horizon directly on the ocean to see North Star when on the equator. 31 degrees in the sky over morrow Georgia. Half circle going across the local sky through the zenith is called the meridian. The highest point a star goes through in the night is a point that has to cross the meridian. Will say something like “crosses the sky at 34 degrees past the meridian at 1 in the morning” Have to tell the compass direction or “azimuth” and the altitude. So SE at 60 degrees above the horizon. Circumpolar stars are stars that seem to move around the north Celestial pole. Never rise nor set. Don’t have to be at the North Pole to see these circumpolar stars however. The angular size of the moon is about (1/2) degrees, which is also the size of the sun. Angular size does not tell the actual size of the object out in space. But if you know angular size and distance you can figure out actual size. Moon crosses in front of the sun for a solar eclipse. Anything smaller than a degree is an arc, so arc minute then arc second. Arc second is one thirty six thousandths of a degree. Uranus and Pluto rotate counter clock wise but on their horizon, spinning on a horizontal axis. Saturn rotates clockwise on its axis due to being knocked over. Stars moving in the western hemisphere, will go down over the horizon towards the west, not straight down however. Going straight up and straight down only on the equator, you are in North Pole look as if they go around you not up or down. Latitude is from 0 to degrees north and south of the equator. In the sky latitude is similar to the altitude of the celestial poles. If you are on the same latitude you will see the same stars no matter what longitude, just different times Longitude is from 0 to 180 degrees east and west of the prime meridian. In the sky we call them Stars we see in the night depends on the latitude, time of the night and the time of the year. Changes in temperature are due to the position of the axis, tilted at 23 1/2 degrees. January is Parahelium is closest to the sun, Apt Helium is farthest away. Two effects, changes in light concentration and changes in length of daylight Solstice is that we are standing still, stopping at solstices. 4 things happen during winter solstice 1. Sun Stops moving south, rises as far south on the horizon as it ever does 2. The northern hemisphere is tilted at a maximum away from the sun. 3. The northern hemisphere receives the least amount of daylight. 4. Winter season “begins” 4 things happen during summer solstice 1. Sun Stops moving north, rises as far north on the horizon as it ever does 2. The southern hemisphere is tilted at a maximum away from the sun. 3. The southern hemisphere receives the least amount of daylight. 4. summer season “begins” in Morrow: 1 day in the year sun rises due east, spring equinox 2 day in the year sun rises due east, fall equinox Only in the tropics does the sun pass the zenith, overhead directly. Summer solstice the Sun is the highest altitude, winter solstice is lowest altitude. Southern hemisphere is known as the sea hemisphere, northern is known as land hemi. Sea hemisphere holds the temperature better than the ground. El Nino- water movement in the pacific .that is unusual, affects the temps on the earth. Earth wobbles, due to gravity, called procession-wobble of a spinning object. Earth’s wobble is very slow, we no longer have sun rising as it did 3000 years ago according to zodiacs. Moon has a 380,000km distance from earth, Sun has a 150,000,000km distance from earth. Closest to the earth is ParaGee, apagee would be the farthest from the earth 27 1/3 days to go around the earth for the moon, phases of the moon takes 29 ½ days to take place. Super moon occurs when full moon is at the paragee, moon rises and sets because earth spins. Moon is so close that it actually moves in the sky a little to the east, going in the same direction we are. Moon rises and sets at different times during the month, takes us 50 minutes to catch the moon. Rises 50 minutes later every day, as it turns the moon receives different amounts of sunlight. New moon rises at dawn, full moon rises at sunset. Very slow rotation, time it takes to go around earth is the same time it takes to make a full rotation. Rotation period = revolution period. Eclipse is the darkening of one body by the shadow of another. Umbra is the Lunar eclipse is the darkening of the moon with earth’s shadow. Moon is in the Full Phase Moon is crossing the ecliptic plane, passing through a “node” in its orbit. Solar Eclipse is the moon getting between the earth and the sun. Moon is in the NEW phase Moon is crossing the ecliptic plane, passing through a “node” in its orbit. Ecliptic plane is the imaginary surface around the sun, moon’s plane is tilted about 5 degrees. Travels a bit above and below the plane, as long as it’s on the plane you can have eclipse. Red light is refracted very noticeably during a lunar eclipse, producing the effect know as a blood moon. Moon never becomes completely dark during a lunar eclipse. 7 Wanderer’s: Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Wanderer is Greek for Planet there for these were called planets back then. Most of these planets went through retrograde motions, or backward motions. Ancient Greeks (600B.C. – 200A.D.) Ancient Greeks developed major innovations that helped paved the way for modern science. Aristotle believed that the eclipse meant sun was behind the earth casting shadow on moon. Discovered that earth wasn’t flat because of the shadow was curved on the moon. They developed a tradition of trying to understand nature without resorting to supernatural explanations. Used mathematics to give precision to their explanations. They began to understanding the power of reasoning from observation. Erososthenese measure the earth with sunlight and measured size of angle and shadows. Estimated that the complete circumference around the earth is about 24,000 miles/40000 kilometers. Aristarkus(260bc) used geometry to measure the sun and earth and discovered the sun was much bigger than the earth, started wondering what made sense: small around big or big around small. Came up with the idea that the earth goes around sun,


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