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Notes for 2-16-16

by: Lucy Stevens

Notes for 2-16-16 PSYCH 3240

Lucy Stevens
GPA 3.53

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About this Document

These are the notes from class. Start of chapter 5
PSYCH 3240
Dr. Claudio Cantalupo
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucy Stevens on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3240 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 3240 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 5- Drugs and Addiction 2-16-16 To Read- Chapter 5: up to page 15 (skipping roles of genes) Chapter 6: up to page 171 *Drug- any chemical substance that can change the body and the physiology of the body 1. Psychoactive Drugs: have psychological effects (anxiety relief, hallucinations, antibiotics, ibuprofen, blood pressure drugs) a. Agonist: drug that mimics or helps the effect of a neurotransmitter (NT) i. Has an effect on receptors as NT (Receptor: lock and key match) ii. Increases effect on the NT on a receptor (almost acts like a catalyst) iii. Blocking or slowing down reuptake or degradation of NT b. Antagonist: reduces or blocks the effects of a NT i. Directly binds to the receptor without activating it; would sit on the receptor site, but not open the channel ii. Reduces the ability of NT (reduces production or release of NT from presynaptic terminals) *Drug (abused) Terminology- 1. Addiction: Must show 3 criteria to be considered “addicted” a. Preoccupation with obtaining drug (person or individual devotes lots of time and effort to getting access to the drug) b. Compulsive use of drug c. High tendency to relapse after quitting 2. Withdrawal: any negative reaction (physiological and physiological) experienced by an individual when he/she tries to quit or cant get access to the drug for sometime a. Symptoms often show the opposite effects of drug (EX: withdrawal from elation-producing drug…depression) 3. Tolerance: behavior phenomenon where increasing amounts of the drug are needed to produce the same results a. Mostly due to reduction in the number and or the sensitivity of receptors to the drug *Drug Types- 1. Opiates: derived from a plant called Opium Poppy a. Opium i. One of the oldest known drugs to mankind (abused since around 4000 B.C.) b. Morphine i. Effective treatment for intense pain. Been in use since the early 1800s c. Heroine i. Initially sold as an over-the-counter analgesic; prescribed for people who were depressed or in pain; Been in use since the late 1800s d. Codeine i. Cough suppressant ii. Most frequently prescribed drug *Opiates have a variety of effects: a. Analgesic (pain relieving) b. Hypnotic (sleep inducing) *Side Effect (addictive) a. Heroine: iii. Highly soluble in lipids; crosses the blood-brain barrier easily iv. Major danger is overdose 1. Drug is too pure 2. Tolerance *Opiates bind to opiate receptors: knew about the drug and its effects before they knew about the receptors in the body *Act as agonists of endogenous opiates—endorphins (pain relief) 2. Depressants- reduce activity of CNS a. Ethanol (“Alcohol”) i. Produced from fermented fruits, grains, ect. (Waste product of bacteria) ii. Complex Action: 1. High Doses- sedative and hypnotic (calming) 2. Low Doses- stimulate iii. Addictive iv. Withdrawal involves tremors, anxiety, mood and sleep disturbances (delirium tremens in worst cases- hallucinations, seizures, death) v. Acts as antagonist of glutamate (most prevalent NT) vi. Acts as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA A receptors 1. Facilitates opening of Chlorine channels causing hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membranes b. Barbiturates: derivate of barbituric acid i. Complex Action 1. High Doses: sedative and hypnotic 2. Low Doses: inhibits cortical centers that inhibit behavior (Ex: talkativeness) 3. Act as antagonist of glutamate 4. Act as agonist of GABA by binding to GABA A a. In high doses can open Chlorine- channels even without GABA, which is potentially very dangerous causing coma or death c. Benzodiazepins i. Similar to Barbiturates but safer 1. Cannot open Chlorine channels on their own ii. Produce anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing), sedative, anti- seizure, and muscle-relaxing effects iii. Addictive 3. Stimulants: increase activity of the CNS a. Cocaine i. Produces euphoria, increased alertness, relief from fatigue ii. Sigmund Freud tested this and found that it was bad iii. Used to be legal as an ingredient in over-the-counter medications and Coca-Cola (1 part in 50,000,000) iv. Acts as an agonist of dopamine and serotonin by blocking their reuptake v. Addictive; withdrawal symptoms include depression and anxiety vi. Can cause brain damage, seizures, ad psychotic symptoms b. Amphetamines i. Synthetic drugs (methamphetamine: speed, crank, crystal) ii. Produce euphoria, increase in confidence, alertness, and concentration iii. Acts as an agonist of dopamine and norepinephrine by increasing their release in the synaptic clef iv. IN high doses can cause hallucinations, delusions and other psychotic-like symptoms


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