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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
2-‐16-‐16 What is color blindness? • It is the inability to discriminate among wavelengths • It is extremely rare to find people who are truly and totally color blind (monochromats) o These people have only rods in their retinas (<1% of the population) • Most “color blind” people are just color deficient-‐ Anomalous Trichromats • 13 million Americans are anomalous trichromats o 6% of men and .5% of women • One common type is called a “dichromat” o Can distinguish between only two of the three cone hues • So they can tell… o Blue from reds and blues from greens but NOT reds from greens (most common) • Data suggests that dichromats are missing the cones of one color and one of the other two colors duplicated o Should have…reds, greens, blues, o Actually have…reds, reds, blues § So the red cones fire when the person sees red or green • Color blindness is a… o “Gender-‐linked trait” o It is transmitted genetically through the female who is, in turn, unlikely to be afflicted by it. o Hemophilia and Muscular Dystrophy are also due to gender-‐linked traits Form Perception • There are two important factors in the perception of form 1. Size constancy-‐ the ability to recognize that an object remains constant in size regardless of (a) its distance from us or (b) the size of the image on our retinas. § Three variables determine your ability to maintain size constancy: 1. Past experience with the actual size of an object 2. Knowledge of an object’s distance from you. 3. Cues from the surrounding environment • Size constancy is not innate (i.e. we’re not born with it). It must be learned from experience! 2. Shape Constancy-‐ the ability to recognize that an object’s shape remains constant regardless of changes in our viewing orientation or angle • We are not born with shape constancy either! It, also much be learned through experience Depth Perception • To perceive depth, we use two types of cues 1. Monocular cues-‐ cues that allow depth perception with a single eye • Often used by painters to give the illusion of depth 2. Binocular cues-‐ cues that require two eyes for the perception of depth. Monocular Cues: 1. Relative size-‐ smaller objects appear farther away 2. Texture gradients-‐ less-‐detailed objects appear farther away 3. Relative height-‐ objects higher in our plane of vision appear farther away 4. Linear perspective-‐ when parallel lines of objects converge, we perceive distance 5. Relative brightness-‐ brighter objects appear closer 6. Interposition-‐ when one object blocks out another, that object appears closer. 7. Relative motion • A little different from other cues • Not used by artists to depict depth but is a monocular cue • Only available when an observer is in motion • When a moving observer (in a car) stares at a fixed point… o Objects behind the point move with the observer o Objects in front of the point move backwards (in opposite direction) 8. Wavelengths themselves o Mountains generally look blue from far away o This is because the longer red and green wavelengths scatter easily as they travel through the air o While the shorter (and stronger) blue waves make it to the retina 9. Accommodation o Muscles of the eye automatically send depth info into the brain when one strains to see a distant object Binocular Cues 1. Retinal disparity a. The slight different in the image that is projected on to each retina b. …occurs because of the two eyes are separated by the bulge of the nose… c. So each eye gets a slight different view of the world! d. Viewmasters takes this to the extreme 2. Convergence a. As an object moves closer to a person, the viewer’s eyes move toward each other (i.e. eyes converge) b. As this happens, information about depth is automatically sent to the brain
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