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GY101 week 5

by: Elle Notetaker

GY101 week 5 GY 101

Elle Notetaker

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These notes cover scattering, surface-atmosphere energy exchanges, and free/forced convection
Atmospheric Processes & Patterns
Eben Broadbent
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elle Notetaker on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Eben Broadbent in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Atmospheric Processes & Patterns in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Lecture notes from 2/15 Gy101­005 Exam: All the lecture slides are now on Blackboard, which is where the test is coming from. scantron format, so make sure you bring a pencil. The test is 45 Qs. Good luck!  Blue rays­ Rayleigh Scattering makes blue skies.  Oh me oh Mie,  I can’t see the red sunset because there’s too much fog. Mie scattering makes  fog, gray skies, and sometimes red sunsets when it’s polluted. rainbows­ the light is scattered nonselectively, making pretty colors. it uses water drops to  scatter colors at different angles. Nonselective scattering also makes clouds white­ clouds are  white because all the wavelengths are scattered toward you equally. ROYGBIV­ high energy to  low. red light has more energy than blue does.  Atmospheric influences on Insolation: Transmission­  this is the amount of energy that gets through the atmosphere to Earth’s surface, and is a percentage. It depends on all the clouds in the air, the time of day, the location,  humidity, etc.  Insolation varies by 7% as you cross the globe. Break up the insolation a place gets into 100  units, and here’s what happens: 25­ atmospheric reflections 19­ reflected back to space by clouds 6­ scattered back to space by atmospheric gases 50­ surface absorption Surface­Atmosphere Energy Transfers: The surface and atmosphere both radiate longwave energy ­ heat. The radiation sent  from the surface tends to be absorbed by oxygen and carbon dioxide, which increases the  temperature of the atmosphere, making the atmosphere radiate energy in every direction.  There’s a range of wavelengths that the atmosphere doesn’t absorb and just lets go straight  through. Said range of wavelengths is called the atmospheric window.  Mirages and the Laminar Boundary Layer We went over conduction, convection, and radiation already, but here’s a recap:  conduction is when thing A touches thing B. Convection is when the thing moves from point A to point B, taking it’s heat with it. Radiation is when the thing packs it’s energy in the mail and  sticks it in the mailbox. The only movement involved is by the energy in the mail. As the sun beats down on the Earth, the top couple centimeters of the ground get nice  and warm, making a temperature gradient as you go deeper. The molecules on the very top of  the pile are touching air, right? So they hand some of their heat over to the air by conduction.  The air right there is called the laminar boundary layer, and it has its own temperature gradient.  You put your hand on the ground on a hot summer day and the ground is pretty warm, right?  This is the same thing. The ground and the air like to share their heat­ they aren’t selfish. So when that tiny layer of air gets its energy, it uses convection to go up and share the  love a little bit in the laminar boundary layer, which is part of why there’s a temperature gradient. This happens every time the surface is warmer than the air. When the air is warmer, the energy  shifts down instead of up.  Free Convection and Flight Hot air goes up in free convection, making updrafts. Birds like these and tend to circle­  have you ever seen a couple birds circling in the same area, just hanging out? They’re catching  the updraft and letting it carry them without all the work. The air shifts comes from buoyancy  differences made by different air temperatures. Warm air is less dense than cool air, so it goes  up.  In forced convection, something makes the air blow. It might initiate eddies and other  disruptions to smooth flow. This is what happens in ovens, where there’s a fan blowing the hot  air around.  Net Radiation and Global Temperature­  Earth is constantly gaining and losing energy, and it’s got a radiation equilibrium where it gets x  amount of energy and sends y amount back. Balances occur on a global scale annually (yearly)  and on a local scale diurnally (daily. You get an imaginary cookie if you already knew what  diurnally means).  Different places get more energy than they send out (if it’s a hot place) or send out more energy than they get (if it’s cold). So, to fix this, hot places send energy to cold places.  .  Have a good day and good luck with the test!


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