Violence in Society Chapter 5
Violence in Society Chapter 5 3250
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne Schoenfeld on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3250 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Henriikka Weir in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Violence in society in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Violence in Society Henriikka Weir Week 5 Chapter 5 Patterns and Trends Robbery is a theft or an attempted theft in a direct confrontation with the victim, by force or threat of force o Ex: If the lady took a purse off someone’s shoulder then it would be a robbery and be an automatic felony (robbery is only when treat or forced is used) Textbook mainly focuses on the NCVS rates, which still show higher incidence even though the NCVS excludes commercial robberies and victims under 12 Robbery rates recorded by the NCVS since 1993 have generally declined o 66% decrease in rates from 1993 to 2012 Over a longer period of time, such as since World War II, Robbery rates have dramatically increased though. o Why? More commercial targets Injuries common but serious injuries rare o Ex: In 2012, 38.2% suffered some injury but only 16.9% were injured seriously enough to require medical treatment; and only 0,18% of robbery victims were killed Weapon use is fairly common o In 2012, offenders armed in 51% of personal robberies but only 29% involved a gun o The likelihood of using a gun much higher for commercial robberies Ex: business such as banks and convenience stores) o Use of gun appears to increase monetary success and lessen the chances of being physically attacked Robberies overall do not tend to be productive (median loss $140 in 2006) Unlike with other crimes, the likelihood that offenders and victims are strangers s much higher with robberies Small number off offenders specializing only in robbery but vast majority of robberies opportunistic Robbery Patterns: o 2012 most robberies (43%) happened on streets or highways 16.9% at residences 1.9% at banks 2.4% at gas stations 5.1% at convenience stores 16.9% at other mis. Locations Robberies committed by young males o Of those arrested 60% younger than 25 87% males 55% African American Explanations Explain Robbery o Define robbery theft with a threat or with force Good theories consider patterns and trends They should also ask: o What can we do about it? Prevention and intervention strategies o What type of environmental and / or individual factors play role in becoming a robber? Someone with violence tendencies o How much, if any, responsibility can be contributed to the victims? With intervention strategies we must talk about victims rolls Strain Theory and Differential Opportunity Theory o General Strain Theory by Robert Agnew (1992) o Cloward & Ohlin (1960) Control Theory o Social Bonding Theory Hirschi (1969) o Techniques of Neutralization Sykes $ Matza (1957) Differential Association Theory o Edwin Sutherland (1939) Symbolic Interaction Theory o Based on Max Weber’s assertions but George Herbert Mead introduced to the field of sociology in the 1920’s Feminist Theory o Extension of Feminism Routine Activity Theory o Cohen & Felson (1996) Interventions Criminal Justice Approaches o Often deterrence and incapacitation based I.E increased lawenforcement and longer sentences etc. o Proactive policing appears to situationally reduce robbery rates Displacement o Mandatory minimum sentences and habitual offender laws appear to have minimal impact in reducing robberies over time Opportunity Reduction Strategies o Based on routine activity theory o Reduce opportunities to commit robberies. How? Think about the 3 elements: Motivates offenders, suitable, target, capable guardians Commercial robbery prevention using situational strategy called Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) o Proven strategies include: 1. Employee surveillance ( 2 or more clerks working) 2. Target removal (improving cashhandling techniques) 3. Improving access control 4. Increasing natural surveillance
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