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Hist1020 Soviet Union notes feb 16

by: Kaytlyn Notetaker

Hist1020 Soviet Union notes feb 16 World history II

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > World history II > Hist1020 Soviet Union notes feb 16
Kaytlyn Notetaker
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These notes cover the Soviet Union and the Great Russian Revolution!
World History 2C
Dr. Cathleen Giustino
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to World history II at Auburn University taught by Dr. Cathleen Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see World History 2C in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
The Soviet Union 1 T HE G REAT R USSIAN R EVOLUTION AND THE S OVIET U NION FEBRUAR16, 2016 I. Distinguishing between communism, socialism, and Leninism. II. Describe two events in the Great Russian Revolution. III. How did Lenin secure single-party rule for Bolshevik Party? IV. How did Stalin secure single-party rule for Bolshevik Party? I. Soviet Union A. World’s largest country a. Soviet Union: 1922-1991 b. Broke up into countries including Russia, the world’s largest country now c. Another large country that came of it was Ukraine. d. Form of government of Soviet Union: authoritarian. i. Authoritarian government: 1. Universal adult suffrage 2. Parliament with lawmaking powers 3. Single-party rule (Democracy has multi-party rule) e. The one political party was the Bolshevik Party. II. Study Question 1 (I): Distinguishing between communism, socialism, and Leninism. A. Communism a. Political tradition that emerged from Marx and Engle’s Communist Manifesto (1848). b. Advocates of the proletariat or factory workers c. Wanted an end to bourgeoisies’ power. d. Predicted that a proletariat revolution was coming to Europe because they found scientific laws of history. This was inevitable and unavoidable. B. Socialism a. Seeks to defend the rights and interest of the proletariat (similar to communism) b. Does not desire or call for proletariat revolution (unlike communism) c. They call for social legislation. i. State should pass laws that intervene in the economy to protect workers’ rights to avoid revolution. C. Leninism a. Takes its name from V.I. Lenin (1870-1924) b. Lenin is extremely important because he was the leader of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. c. He was the leader of single party rule in the Soviet Union d. Desires proletariat revolutions (like communism) e. Seeks to protect workers’ rights. (like communism and socialism) f. Leninism doesn’t believe in scientific laws of history. g. He believes in human will. Human will is what causes historical change. h. He argued that a revolutionary vanguard would cause the revolution to happen. This would be of people practicing their human will. i. Revolutionary vanguard: small group of political elites that come together and engineer an outbreak of proletariat revolution. i. What is to be Done? Was published in 1902 by V.I. Lenin !!!!!!!!!!!! i. This talked of the vanguard ii. Promise question j. Most defenders of Russian proletariat accepted Lenin’s theory of the revolutionary vanguard. These came to be called the Bolsheviks. k. Bolsheviks accept Lenin’s theory of the revolutionary vanguard. They wanted one to bring about a revolution. They saw themselves as this revolutionary vanguard. i. Red is the color of the Bolshevik party ii. These people are called Leninists iii. Leninists = Bolsheviks iv. This group formed the Bolshevik Party v. Led to Great Russian Revolution III. Study Question 2 (II): Describe two events in the Great Russian Revolution. A. Bolshevik Revolution/ Great Russian Revolution a. 1917 b. Occurred while WWI was happening and when Russia was fighting. c. Russia was part of the Triple Entante but pulled out in 1917 d. Russia was a monarchy before this. 1. The king was the Czar (tsar) and the queen was czarina (tsarina) e. March 12, 1917 monarchy was ended 1. Tsar Nicholas II and Alexandra gave up their power and ended monarchy in Russia. 2. This is the first big event in the Great Russian Revolution. f. Why did they give up their power? 1. Nicholas II and Alexandra lost the confidence of the people. The people saw that they had no power. 2. There were massive street demonstrations proving that they no longer have to confidence of the Russian people. 3. St. Petersburg was the capitol during the monarchy 4. After the revolution, the capitol was moved to Moscow g. Reasons why they lost the confidence 1. Nicholas II took leadership over the army. 2. He was a terrible military leader but insisted taking over the leadership of the Russian army 3. This hurt his power greatly 4. Many died due to his bad leadership and he was losing followers due to this. 5. While Nicholas II was being a bad military leader, Alexandra was left to run the country. 6. Alexandra wasn’t doing a good job at running the government mainly because she fell under the influence of Rasputin. 7. Nicholas and Alexandra had a son with hemophilia (horrible bleeding disorder) who was also the heir to the throne. 8. Monk Rasputin said he had the power to heal hemophilia. Alexandra believed him and fell under his spell. 9. She began to take Rasputin’s advice on how to run Russia. This was terrible advice. h. A temporary government was put into place after the monarchy i. They wanted a parliament and they wanted universal male suffrage. j. The temporary government was unpopular to the people of Russia because it refused to remove Russia from the war. The people were tired of the fighting and wanted their families back. k. Because it was unpopular, a different set of politics was able to rise and win support of the people. l. Soviets were the ones rising up. m. Beginning March, 1917, Soviets (translated to council) rose up. n. Soviets 1. Little governments popping up around Russia 2. They had no relationship to the government and popped up randomly as they expressed their dissatisfaction of the war. 3. There was hundreds by summer, 1917. 4. Many of the soviets were heavily loaded with guns. Many were deserting soldiers. 5. Soviets were very loyal to the Bolshevik party. 6. The leaders of the Soviets saw themselves as members of the Revolutionary vanguard. 7. The most powerful and important Soviet was the Soviet of St. Petersburg. 8. This was very well armed and directly under control of Leninists or those of the Bolshevik Party. 9. Lenin and others realized that the political position of Russia was prime for engineering a workers revolution (after summer). 10.Lenin has assistance from Leon Trotsky (1879-1940). 11.Trotsky was the leader of the St. Petersburg Soviet. 12.Trotsky led the military force which gained control over all communication networks in St. Petersburg and all government buildings. 13.November 6, 1917 they gained control over the government of St. Petersburg 14.November 7, 1917 they declared that had power over the government of Russia. This was the Second great event! 15.They will use this for single-party rule. o. New Government 1. Universal adult suffrage 2. One political party doing everything: the Bolshevik Party. p. Lenin securing Single-Party rule IV. Study Question 3 (III): How did Lenin secure single-party rule for Bolshevik Party? A. What did Lenin do to secure single-party rule? a. He immediately started efforts. b. First he ended Russian involvement in WWI. c. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918), removed Russia from WWI. d. The groups that didn’t like the Bolshevik Party and this led to a civil war between the two. November 1920, Lenin and the Bolsheviks won. e. After the civil war, Lenin (March 1921) announced a New Economic Policy (NEP). 1. NEP called for the promotion of private property and free enterprise. 2. Promoting this went against the teachings of Marx and the original teachings of Lenin (these were bourgeoisies things) 3. Lenin hoped that by allowing private property and free enterprise to win loyalty of the wealthy peasants who were opposed. 4. Lenin did gain more supporters; enough to feel secure about creating the Soviet Union 5. December 1922 he announced the creation of the Soviet Union. a. A constitution was written with: i. universal adult suffrage ii. Parliament iii. One political party 6. Beginning 1922 and worsened in 1924, Lenin has strokes. a. In 1924 Lenin passed away from a stroke. f. Problems with Lenin’s death 1. Lenin didn’t name a successor. 2. A power struggle within the Bolshevik party broke out. 3. Leon Trotsky and Josef Stalin were top contenders. B. Josef Stalin a. 1926 became the leader of the Bolshevik Party and the Soviet Union th b. Stalin was very cruel and bloody; the worst in the 20 century. c. He won because he was great at political maneuvering and mean to competition d. He hated private property and free enterprise because it promotes bourgeoisies. e. He wanted to stick to original teachings of Marx and Lenin f. Stalin was stricter and further consolidated Bolshevik Party rule over the government. V. Study Question 4 (IV): How did Stalin secure single-party rule for Bolshevik Party? A. First five-year plan a. 1929-1932 (correct dates. Yes, four years) b. Goal of this was to rapidly industrialize the Soviet Union c. Economy was very behind when Stalin came to power d. Soviet was mainly agricultural, not industrial e. Soviet Union needed to become a world industrial power. f. He made it a modern, industrialized country. g. In this plan, in order to bring about this rapid industrialization, policies were made. 1. Abolish private property (now property of the state) 2. Abolish free enterprise. 3. Ended the NEP h. He created the Command Economy. 1. An economy of which there is no private property 2. State makes all economic decision (no free enterprise). i. Anyone who was against this, they were killed. 1. Largest group to resist were the wealthy peasants who didn’t want to give up their land (about 5 million died in this four years). 2. A majority of these were in Ukraine. j. Strength of soviet industry tremendously grew k. 1932 was so successful that the five year plan only needed 4 years. From here he created more five-year plans. B. Arresting and killing people who were threats. a. Anybody against Stalin or the government that has been built would be arrested and killed. b. Great Purge (1934-1938) carried out by Stalin. 1. Wanted unrivalled rule over the Bolshevik Party so anybody in the party who was a threat were killed. 2. Began with people within the party. 3. The great purge spread to the rest of soviet society. 4. About 300,000 were killed, largely by hanging. 5. Many were Bolsheviks and many were those who supported the NEP. 6. Another 7 million were sent to a type of concentration camp Stalin created. c. Gulag: Stalin’s concentration camps for potential or real threats 1. Anyone who he saw as threats were sent from WWII to when he died in 1953. 2. 10 million to 50 million Soviets died in Stalin’s gulags. d. What did he achieve by such human cost? 1. Strong authoritarian government.


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