Comm210 Week 6 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 210 at Ball State University taught by Denker in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
COMM210 WEEK 6 Supporting Your Ideas IMPORTANT DATES: Midterm Exam: (ch 17 & 11) Monday, Feb. 29 @ 2pm – Sunday, March 6 @ 5pm th 1. Theme of Informative Speeches: to communicate effectively, keep audience expectations in mind. a . Four Steps in Preparing Presentation i. Assess the needs for presentation ii. Set reasonable goals for presentation iii. Record/comprehend the knowledge/feelings of chosen topic iv. Locate information on subject b. Ways to Prepare i. List all ideas on the subject and arrange the most important points into a meaningful structure ii. Visualize a structure and rephrase ideas to fit this pattern iii. Examine strategies of structure/ organization from chapters 3,4,5, and 11 2. Basic Unit of a Presentation a. The basic unit of a presentation: i . An idea 1. A complete sentence that claims or denies that something is true or desirable, also called “claims” 2. Thesis or Central Idea a. The single unifying claim of a presentation b. To develop: i. Recite main points orally ii. Ask yourself, “Will audience understand the direction of my speech from these 3 points?” 3. Complex/ Controversial points a. Developed with additional ideas (sub points) ii . 3 Categories 1. Claim of Fact: a. Asserts or denies that something exists, existed, or will exist b. Defines what something is or is not 2. Claim of Value: a. Answers the questions of something’s worth or morality 3. Claim of Policy a. Answers the questions of what should be done 3. Supporting Material a . Functions of Support i. How you support your points determines whether audience will understand, accept, enjoy and remember your message 1. Good communication (hold audience’s attention) 2. Help audience understand and remember ideas (informative speech goals) b . Using Support i. Balance detail (accuracy) and brevity (simplicity) ii. Examine support from the eyes of your listeners and chose the details that hold audience attention iii. Provide proof, clarification, and/or retention of your ideas c . Types of Supporting Material i. Examples 1 . Functions of examples: a. Serve as evidence in the reasoning process/induction b. Increase persuasiveness 2 . Types of examples: a. Specific instances i. Brief, used to clarify an idea b. Stories i. Extended narratives that can be involving, enjoyable, and memorable ways to support ii. Progresses through appropriate stages of scene, complications, climax, and closing c. Hypothetical i. Focus on the past, emphasize inference, possibility, and probability ii. Products of imagination iii. Influence beliefs, attitudes, and actions ii. Quantifications 1 . Measurements a. Quantity, distance, length, and time b. Help bridge gap between speakers knowledge and audience 2 . Statistics a. Provide numerical information about a topic b. Mean: (the average) c. Median: (the middle score) d. Mode: (most frequent unit) e. Range:(difference between highest and lowest measurement) f. Percentage: (portion of entire set /100) 3 . How to Increase effectiveness a. Avoid overusing measurements and statistics b. Use visual aids in form of a chart/graph to ignore numbers c. Round off statistics iii. Testimony 1. Paraphrase long quotes a. Indirect quotations 2. Using exact quotes a. Direct quotation b. Proverb: short familiar sentence that expresses an accepted truth or moral iv. Analogy 1 . Comparison and Contrast a. Similarities and differences 2 . Literal analogies a. A comparison used as evidence to convince or persuade a receiver b. Use other forms of support when developing (real examples, statistics, or testimony) 3 . Figurative analogies a. A comparison of unlike things that share a common characteristic b. EXAMPLE: comparing insurance to an umbrella c. Metaphors and similes (“like” and “as”) v. Explanations 1. Detailed information to clarify meaning / definitions 2. Answer: What? How? Why? 3. Long or Complicated Explanations: a. Use simple, vivid language b. Present details in orderly fashion vi. Repetition and Restatement 1. Saying a word/phrase = repeating 2. Putting an idea into new words = restating 3. Emphasize movement from one point to another and is a powerful tool when persuading 4. Factors of Attention a. Activity i. Attracts attention (physical or mental) ii. Move naturally, use gestures b. Conflict i. Conflict between facts, ideas, or people c. Familiarity i. Audience feels more comfortable with things they know or have experienced d. Humor i. Must be used appropriately e. Importance i. Important information is relevant and motivating f. Proximity g. Surprise h. Suspense 5. Common Fallacies a. Hasty Generalization i. Draws conclusion based on insufficient evidence 1. EXAMPLE: because an employee of a store seems incompetent, it’s concluded that all employees of that store are incompetent b. False Division i. When a speaker divides or categorizes an issue in an artificial way 1. EXAMPLE: saying that there is only one way to solve a complex issue c. Bandwagon i. Appeal to popular opinion, occur when a speaker attempts to rally support by claiming “everyone agrees” 1. EXAMPLE: “all the celebrities are doing ______” d. False Cause i. Occurs when someone claims the because something occurred before something else, the first event caused the second event 1. EXAMPLE: “studying all night was the reason you received a good grade on your test”
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