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Phi 120 Lecture 10

by: Alexis Fulton

Phi 120 Lecture 10 PHI 120

Alexis Fulton
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About this Document

Notes from lecture 10, Feb 16.
Philosophy 120
Dr. Brandon Look
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 120 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Brandon Look in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Philosophy 120 in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 02/16/16
PHI 120 2-16-16 4.5 THE TRADITIONAL SQUARE OF OPPOSITION - Adopts Aristotelian standpoint that universal propositions about existing things have existential import - Contradictory = opposite truth value o Contradictories: a-o & e-I (same as Modern Square) - Contrary = at least one is false (impossible for both to be true) o Contraries: A-E - Sub contrary = at least one is true (impossible for both to be false) o Sub contraries: I-O - Sub alternation: o Truth “flows down” from A-I and E-O o Falsity “flows up” from I-A and O-E Testing immediate inferences: - All Swiss watches are true works of art. Therefore it is false that no Swiss watches are works of art. - The existential fallacy: from the Aristotelian standpoint, committed only when contrary, sub contrary, and sub alternation are correctly used to draw inferences about things that do not exist. All Unicorns are magical (T) ------existential fallacy-------------- no unicorns are magical (F) | | | | Existential fallacy Existential fallacy | | | | Some unicorns are magical (T) -------- existential fallacy -- > some unicorns are not magical (F) All students who failed the exam are students on probation. Therefore, some students who failed the exam are students on probation. - From the Aristotelian standpoint, this inference is conditionally valid. The condition is whether there actually are any students who failed the exam All cats are dogs. Therefore, some cats are dogs. Assuming the Aristotelian standpoint, this argument is valid. It correctly makes an inference based on the relation of the sub-alternation, and it is about really existing things. However, the premise is false. Therefore, the argument is valid but unsound. We can also use the relations of conversion, obversion, and contraposition along with the traditional square of opposition to prove that an argument is valid or to deduce the conclusion from the premise. By this it is meant that, given a premise (or set or premises), we can move by certain rules of inference towards a conclusion. All inappropriate remarks are faux pas. Therefore, some faux pas are not appropriate remarks. A = “appropriate remarks” and F = faux pas All non-A are F. Some non-A are F. Some F are non-A. Some F are not A.


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