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Ecology Lab

by: Brianna Napper

Ecology Lab Bio 1104k

Brianna Napper
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Lab #1; ecosystem, trophic levels
Introductory Biology II
Dr. Chapman
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Napper on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1104k at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Chapman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Lab #1: Ecology Vocab  Ecology- the study of interactions between organisms and their environment  Population- a group of interacting individuals of a single species located within a particular are  Community- a group of interacting populations located within a particular area  Ecosystems- all of the organisms and their nonliving environment within a defined area  Primary consumers- organisms which feed directly on the producers  Secondary consumers- organisms which feed on primary consumers  Tertiary consumers- organisms which feed on secondary consumers  Decomposer organisms- organisms which decompose the dead remains of primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers for energy  Trophic level- each hierarchal level in an ecosystem  Biomass- total mass of the living organisms in a trophic level Objectives  Define ecology, ecosystem, producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, decomposer, biomass, and trophic level  Describe the flow of energy through an ecosystem  Describe the forest ecosystem in terms of: 1) species present in each trophic level; and (2) species present in the horizontal layers  Describe the process of plant succession leading to a climax community Abiotic vs. Biotic Components  Biotic- living features (i.e. plants, animals)  Abiotic- non-living features (i.e. sunlight, rain, temperature, soil) 1) Producer nutrients 2) Primary Consumer 3) consumer Secondary Consumer 4) Tertiary death Consumer Trophic Levels 1)Producers (autotrophs): convert sunlight to energy 2)Consumers(heterotrophs): eat others to get energy 3)Decomposers: Feed on dead; All levels of consumers can be eaten by decomposers Energy Pyramid 2  Energy flows in one direction through an ecosystem The higher the trophic level= the lower the total available energy Tertiary Consumer 1 Secondary Consumer 10 Primary Consumer 100 Producer 1000  Rule of Ten - Describes the inefficient energy transfer between trophic levels - As you move up the pyramid, you gain 10% of the previous level’s energy - Other 90% of energy is lost to heat/ metabolism Diatoms 3  Autotrophs  One-celled algae  Extremely abundant (oceans to freshwater)  20-25% of photosynthesis  chlorophyll  Major food source Spirogyra  Autotrophs  Filamentous green algea  Found in fresh water environments  Chloroplasts in helical shape 4 Oscilatoria  Autotrophs  Blue/green bacteria capable of photosynthesis  Found in watering-troughs Rotifers  Heterotrophs  “Wheel-bearer” head of cilia  Mostly found in freshwater  Consumer algea and phytoplankton  Lunch for secondary consumers (i.e. shrimp, crab) Paramecia 5  Heterotrophs  Found in freshwater  Consume bacteria and algea  Lunch for secondary consumers (i.e. shrimp, crab) 6


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