Criminology Chapter 5 Trait Theory
Criminology Chapter 5 Trait Theory 3600
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Hardison on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Andrew Fisher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Criminology Chapter 5: Trait Theory Trait Theory o Definition The view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits. Some trait about an individual that makes them prone to criminality o Development of Trait Theory Sociobiology the view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to survive and preserve the species Differential Trait Susceptibility Crime producing interactions involve: o Personal traits o Environmental factors Vulnerability Model Direct link between traits and crime Some people are just vulnerable to crime from birth Differential Susceptibility Model Some traits make the individual more susceptible to environmental influences o Biological Trait Theories Diet, sugar levels, hormonal influences, premenstrual syndrome, lead exposure, environmental contaminant Neurophysiological Conditions ADHD, brain chemistry, arousal theory Genetics Antisocial behavior is inherited The genetic makeup of parents is passed on to children Genetic abnormality is linked to a variety of antisocial behavior Evolutionary Evolution of gender and crime o Women nest, men hunt Evaluation of the Biological Branch Explaining geographic, social, and temporal patterns in the crime rate Explaining existence of crime across differing individuals o Psychological Traits Sigmund Freud (18561939) Id (Es) Ego (Ich) Superego (UberIch) Principles of Psychoanalytic Criminality Adult criminality is caused by lack of development in a personality as a child Behavior is intertwined with unconscious motives Criminality is a representation of internal conflict Attachment Theory The view that forming emotional bond to another person is an important aspect of mental health throughout the life span o Specificity, duration, emotional engagements, ontogeny, learning, organization, biological function Behavioral Perspective The view that all human behavior is learned through a process of social reinforcement o Social Learning Theory Behavior Modeling The process of learning behavior by observing others o Family interactions, environmental experiences, mass media Cognitive Theory Perspective that focuses on the mental processes by which people perceive and represent the world around them and solve problems Cognitive problems o Pedophilia Distorted thinking patterns Child as a sexual being, nature of harm, entitlement, dangerous world, uncontrollable Social Policy and Trait Theory Primary prevention programs o Programs such as substance abuse clinics and mental health associations that seek to treat personal problems before they manifest themselves as crime Secondary prevention programs o Programs that provide treatment, such as psychological counseling, after an individual commits a crime o Top limitations for providing inmate treatment Budgetary constraints, space limitations, limited number of counselors, lack of volunteers, frequent movement of inmates, general correction problems, problem with aftercare provision, and legislative barriers Biological Control o Moodaltering drugs o Diet o Psychosurgery
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