Popular in Comparative World Civ
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Spence on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 110 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Patrick Hurley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Comparative World Civ in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Week Notes
Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/16/16
HY 110 Notes Chapter 1 - Humans first appeared in Africa 200,000 years ago close to Kenya. - Humans shared earth with the Neanderthals (Neanderthals not smart – died off) - Began banding together - Made tools to help being daily tasks, mostly made of stone. - Paleolithic because paleo = old and lithic = stone (old stone age). - Small groups / division of labor (hunter gatherers). - Survival/protection move to caves or colder climates where predators don’t wish to go to. - Neolithic = new stone age – people were less nomadic, settled down and built communities. - Many theories as to why this occurred. (Ex. Beer theory) - Stay in one place = know the land better, easier to protect the land and harvest crops and become selfsufficient. - Farmland develops across Africa then other places such as South America and Central Asia. (Ex. Egypt, Peru, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon) - Catal Huyuk – extremely early settlement that there is a concrete knowledge of its appearance. It was believed to have no streets, therefore the people had to walk across each other’s roofs, which is where doors were also located. (6,000 people). - Diversification of labor lead to population growth. - Agricultural Revolution = mean worked in fields herding animals, women wove clothes and took care of children, early example of gender roles. - Man’s role considered to be more important throughout time due to the fact that their job was seemingly more dangerous. - Organized thinking of everyone’s place in the world, including development of first organized piece of religion. - Mother Goddesses – first organized piece of religion. Believed mother Goddesses would make lands more fertile. - 4,0003,000 is when writing begins to appear in order to keep records. - Civilizations – 6 key characteristics 1. Urban focus. 2. Religion (Gods/Goddesses crucial to civilization’s success need to be worshipped) 3. Political, military and bureaucratic structure. 4. Social structure based on class, economic power. (More assets = more important) 5. Writing. (Record keeping, correspondence between different branches) 6. Monuments, artistic activity, poetry, etc. - Civilizations emerged around the same time in the fertile crescent. (Mesopotamia = the land between the rivers due to location between Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Now known as Middle East.) - Irrigation = action taken to prevent flooding from the rivers that would ruin crops and kill inhabitants. Act of digging ditches around the rivers to give excess water a place to go during a flood, also making the land richer and farmable. - Sumerians are responsible for first city states that were independent on one another, who also had a defense system to protect against intruders. - Uruk – city extremely concerned with defense and protecting against invasion, along with an intricate city plan, enclosed in city walls. - Builders today use similar materials as those hundreds of thousands of years ago. - Ziggurat – temple in Iraq made of brick composed of mud containing a temple sanctuary dedicated to the religious figure of that city. - Slavery began to develop. - 90% called free commers - Wheel invented = trade explosion due to increased ability to travel and interdependence among civilizations for goods unobtainable on their own land. - Peaceful growth quickly turns into war during early dynastic age (3,0002,340). - History’s first conqueror – Sargon of Akkad. - Used army of about 5,000 and invaded civilizations that were at war with one another and during the middle of his reign, realizes he cannot rule all of his new land by himself. - Begins appointing leaders to subgovern his territories, and forces them to pay taxes (Indirect rule) - Naram Sin – grandson/successor of Sargon. Eventually declares himself a God and claims to rule the world leading to internal revolts. - New conqueror – Hammurabi. - Hammurabi looked up to Sargon, however wanted more. Not only conquered, but took a strong interest in his empire from architecture to defense including an economic revival. - Hammurabi’s Code – uniformed code of laws etched into pillars called stlae to be a constant reminder of what was okay and what was not. - Crime against the lower class it isn’t a good thing, however if a crime is committed by a member of the lower class towards a member of a higher class, the punishment is devastating. - “Eye for an eye” / Negative reinforcement. - Hypothetically – governor is responsible for capturing a super thief, if the thief ran off to ancient Egypt, governor must pay back everything stolen by the thief to the victims of the robbery with his own money. Murderer fails to be caught, governor pays compensation if murderer isn’t caught. - Soldiers who refuse to go to war and hire a substitute to replace them – Hammurabi would kill soldier and give substitute all of the assets had by the other man. - Building tenant gets killed if building collapses and murders somebody. - Son hits father = son gets hand cut off, also son can be disinherited. HY 110 NOTES 1/26 - Hebrews history recorded mostly in Old Testament in the Bible - Originally nomads - Based in Mesopotamia - Abraham, first leader of the Hebrews - Abraham considered to be the patriarch of them, migrated from Mesopotamia to Canaan - Canaan to Egypt - Moses is credited with leading the Hebrews out of Egypt. - EXTRA CREDIT: KNOW THE 10 COMMANDMENTS - Back to Canaan - Sea peoples, pillaging and raiding of any coastal region they came across. - Elders interpreted laws, as well as the supplementary commandments. - Hebrews decided they needed a king. - According to Bible, God said not to choose a king. - 12001000 BC/BCE first King in Israel (Saul). - Saul 10201000 BC/BCE. - King David, 2 king (1000970 BC/BCE) - Temple of Jerusalem and prosperity are what Solomon was known for - Solomon had favorites, after his death there were many ineffective rulers and tribes began fighting amongst one another - Two kingdoms: Philistines and Phoenicians - Kingdom of Judah (South: Capital Jerusalem) Kingdom of Israel (North: Capital Samaria) - Judah attacks and overtakes Kingdom of Israel. - Captured country? Round up citizens, relocate to new part of the country to avoid a revolt. - 10 lost tribes of Israel, lost all of their cultural identity. - Judah holds out and pays Assyrians - Nobody likes the Assyrians and constantly overstepped their boundaries. - NeoBabylonians rule much of the Assyrian Empire, including Egypt. - Judah revolts against Egypt invasion, stopping the invasion completely. - The revolt is crushed, leader torches Jerusalem and sends everyone to Babylon (Babylonian Captivity – book of Daniel). - Jehovah = chief God, wrathful. - Hebrews had to keep God happy, along with local spirits. - Hebrew law = more than 1 wife must get equal treatment emotionally and monetarily or she can divorce you. - Everything in the world came from chaos. - Earth emerged from chaos. - Incest amongst Gods ok - One God procreated all other Gods - Gaia perpetually pregnant; never gave birth. - Cronus ate his children to avoid the betrayal he demonstrated towards his own father. - Zeus was Cronus’ last child but Rhea took Zeus to Mt. Ida and Cronus ate a stone he believed was Zeus. - Raised by either a goat, nymph, singing male dancers. - Zeus cuts off Cronus’ reproductive organs. - War of the titans - Prometheus defeats giants and the titans then imprisons or otherwise neutralizes them. - Zeus is proving to Gaia that he and his siblings have a right to rule the universe. - Zeus throws mountain at dragon, creating Mt. Edna the volcano. - Siblings split up universe, Hades get underworld. - Anthropomorphic – giving human qualities to an animate or inanimate object that isn’t human. - 3 fates: 1. Young girl 2. Woman in the prime 3. Old woman Young girl springs thread, woman portions, and old woman cuts the thread. - Zeus realizes you can’t change fate. - Fate doesn’t care. - Hesiod Theogeny - Zeus wanted to make sure men went crazy over Pandora. - Pandora had a box/jar and was told not to open the box, yet opened it regardless. - The suffering of all of the world came out of the box. - Hope also emerges after the opening of the box. - Silver age: men lived after fall of Prometheus - Males dominated by their mothers. - Short time of 100 year lives spent as adults. - No religion and scoffed at the Gods. - Zeus destroyed them. - Guardian spirits of the underworld - Bronze age: everything made of bronze. - Ancestors of the classical greeks. - Warlike - Full of Hubertus - Known for killing one another. - Zeus decided to start over so he sent a large wave/flood to wipe out living people (Noah’s Ark). - Age of heroes. - 5 ages (ends with iron age; where we live, live selfinflicted existence). - Double standard between Gods and people. - 3 sexes: Males, females, joint sex. - No relationships w Gods in common people; usually only the very successful. - Name as many Greek Gods/Goddesses & their responsibilities. 1. Zeus King of Gods, Gods of thunder/lightning. Sleeps with everything. 2. Hera Queen of Gods, Goddess of marriage. 3. Hestia Goddess of the fireplace/heart. Seen as central to the home. 4. Demeter Goddess of the harvest/of the crops. (Series). 5. Poseidon God of the sea, earthquakes, building of city walls, and horses. 6. Apollo God of archery, music, medicine, plague, and prophecy (always unlucky in love). 7. Artemis Goddess of huntresses. 8. Aries God of war. 9. Aphrodite Goddess of love, sex, and beauty. 10. Hephaestus God of blacksmiths, beneficial fire, and volcanoes. 11. Athena Goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and just warfare. 12. Hermes Messenger God, God of thieves and merchants. 13. Dionysus God of wine. 14. Persephone Goddess of Springtime ** All live on Mount Olympus except Hades. 15. Hades loves Persephone. God of the underworld. - Greece had citystates. - Polis is the name for the city state. - Formed at the end of the dark ages. - Synoecism – communities come together. Archaic Age (750479 BC/BCE) -
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'