Survey of American History
Survey of American History 1903
Arkansas Tech University
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Justin A. Whitney
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Wisenbaker on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1903 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History in History at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
History lecture 21 In December of 1845, the US annexed the Republic of Texas. The war for Texas was very unpopular in the North because they saw it is as a big land grab, as another way to spread slavery to the west. The slaveocracy was an imagined group of very politically powerful and wealthy slave owners who had infiltrated the government and wanted to turn the US in a slave government. The North saw the war a plot to expand slavery went because under the Missouri Compromise there could be no slavery able 36 degrees 30 minutes. In spite of the “spot resolution” congress declared war on Mexico in May of 1846. The first great battle was on the boarder of the Rio Grande. General Zachary Taylor fought the first two battles of the Mexican War, the Battle of Pauo Alta and the Battle of Risca de los Plamas. These battles took place on the boarder of Mexico and US. The Mexicans were overwhelmed by the Americans. The Mexicans rode into battle with lances where as the Americans had guns. General Taylor invaded Northern Mexico and over the course of the next year he fought the Battle of Saltio, Battle of Moterray and won victories for the United States. Zachary Taylors nick name was “Old rough and ready”. He never wore a uniform, chewed tobacco, and never rode a horse but rode a mule to battle. A lot of his attacks where frontal with not much strategies. Some of the battles were house to house, room to room. The Mexican war was also a political war. Taylor was a Whig, and there was talk of him becoming the next president. Following his conquest of Northern Mexico, Polk cut him off. He made it so that Zachary Taylor only enough food and men to survive. Polk did not want Taylor to become the next president was a Whig General Whinefild Scott was the exact opposite of Taylor. Scott’s nickname was “old fuss and feathers” because he primed around like a peacock. Scott was always in a perfectly kept general uniform and always on horse. A lot of his attacks were strategic and methodical. He invaded Mexico though the Gulf of Mexico at Vera Cruise the same place where Cortez invaded. Scott read Cortez’s diaries to know what to expect, and he followed the same routes that Cortez did. A lot of famous Civil War generals learned how to fight in Mexico under Scott and Taylor. In the end it was Scott who conquered Mexico City and ended the war. General Stephen Watts Kearny went to California. He was put in charge of the Army of the West. Kearny represented Polk’s reason for wanting to go to war with Mexico. Polk wanted to acquire a way to the Pacific Ocean. Kearny was send to the Santa Fay trail down through Northern Texas over to Colorado drop down into New Mexico then to Santa Fay. He captured New Mexico without firing a shot. The governor and the army of Mexico had already retreated. Caption Phillip Saint George Cooke rode out to Bence Fort and was introduced to James Maggoffin. Maggoffin was under secret orders to make a deal with the Governor. They convinced the governor to just run away. A few months later Kearny marched on to San Diego. Along the way he ran into Christopher Kit Carson. Kit Carson told Kearny that California had already been conquered. Kearny fought the Battle of San Pasqual in December of 1848. Kearny was hit by Mexican army. Kid Carson snuck away and called the Marines and they came. When Kearny got to CA he saw that it was not concord. When he presented papers that said that Kearny was to be the civil and military government. The Navy General and his lieutenant Freemont refused to accept it. Kearny put Freemont under arrest for his mutiny and they made him ride though the Doughnery Campsite with them. Kearny and his men tried to organize a burial site for them. The Mormon Battalion is the only military unit in the history of the US created through an agreement of the Church and the Government. Joseph Smith founded the Mormon Church in the late 1820’s. They were established in New York. They were pushed to Ohio, then to Missouri, later to a town in Illinois. Joseph Smith was killed by a mob when he was put in jail. Young took over the Mormon Church and knew that he had to get them out of the United State. But he needed money. He send one of his vice president to Polk to tell him that the Mormons would create an army to go out west and protect it from the British and Mexicans all the US had to do was pay them. The US agreed to it as a way to assure the loyalty of the Mormons. The Mormons agreed to it as way to send their pay to the church to finance the move west and they would not have a combat role in the army. The Mexican War came to an end with the Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo. US got New Mexico, Colorado, Idaho, Utah, California, and Arizona. Two years later US got the Gaston Purchas Territory. The reason why we bought it was because it was where we could get a year round rail road line to connect California to the East. David Wilmot was a democrat from Pennsylvania, but he did not like the idea of slavery spreading west. He attached the Wilmot Proviso to one of the military budgets that said “since slavery has been abolished under the Mexican Constitution and it does not exist there at present it would be immoral to introduce slavery to those territories therefore slavery should be forever banned in all territories acquired from Mexico as a result of the war.” The southerns thought that he was saying that they were bad and immoral. This became one of the most conservational issues in American. This kept the Government from doing anything except passing the laws nessicary to win the Mexican War. This also let to talk of the south leaving the Union. In 1850 a compromise was reached and the country was able to move forward. History Lecture 22 Review session 45 T and W. Review sheet will be up tonight. Start Studying The Wilmot Proviso was attached to every law by the north for the next four years. The only laws passed where the ones that would help the war. The Mexican War ended in 1848. In December of 1848 California found gold. It was discovered by the American River outside of Sutter’s Mill. Sutter’s Mill was a saw mill in modern day Sacramento, CA. It was the first place that people got to when they got off the overland trail. In the spring of 1849, word got out and people began to rush over there. The Gold Rush had begun. Within a year there was 90,000 people going to California. At this point California was ready to become a state. But the government was arguing so much over slavery spread to the debate on how to bring CA into the Union. The South wanted to divide California to be divided in half. They wanted to extend the Missouri Compromise line so that slavery could spread. CA wanted to be a free state. The South wanted to make half of it free and half of it slave. By 1850, it was so bad that the Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo could not be ratified by the government. Zachary Taylor was the new President in 1848. For two years he tried to push the government to work together again. Henry Clay of KY came back in 1850 to begin the process of working on the Compromise of 1850. Steven Douglas was the one who actually got it passed. The Compromise of 1850 was a series of laws passed by congress to end government dysfunction caused by the Wilmot Proviso. It asked the North and the South to make some compromise on key political issues. 1) north and south agreed to let the Wilmot Proviso die, they would not try to put it into any more laws. 2) California gets admitted as a free state. This permanently threw off the equilibrium in the senate. There would always be more free state senators than slave state senators 3) The South had to agree to ban the sale of slaves in Washington D.C. 4) The North agreed to assume the debts that the Republic of Texas had accumulated over the 9 years. But, Texas had to agree to give up territory that resulted in it having the boarders it does today. 5) The Utah and New Mexico Territory, slavery was going to wait to be decided. This was agreed upon by both sides. 6) The North had to agree to allow passage of the Fugitive Slave Act. This law created federal laws that would assist slave owners wanting to reclaim their runaway slaves. This meant that everybody in the US was a Slaver catcher. It was a federal offence to help an escape slave. Up North there the abolitionist who wanted to abolish slavery. There was also another group who just didn’t like slavery , but they didn’t care if slavery stayed in the south but they just didn’t want it in the North. This was the majority of Northerners, freesoilers. The Fugitive Slave Act angered Freesoilers and Abolitionist. Soon states passed laws that said if that if the people didn’t want to they did not have to turn slaves in. Slave Courts were created to say if a person was a run away slave or not. The judges ruled guilt a lot because they would get paid more. This lead to riots in Boston. There were 1000 of free blacks who were captured and brought to the south. The Whig political party ended up dying because of the slavery issue. In 1854, Stephen Dougles wanted to build a transcendental railroad that would go from Chicago to San Francisco. He relized that if this was going to happen he was going to have to make a deal with southern Politian, who only cared about slavery. The Southern politians wanted to expand slavery. Dougles proposed to create Kansas and Nebraska in the KansasNebraska Act of 1854. Nebraska was too far north for slavery to be an issue but he let the south to have their own territory in Kansas. The Missouri Compromise lines was below Kansas. Dougles repealed the Missouri Compromise and let slavery in Kansas. He was relying on popular sovereignty which was a political theory that said that the people should be allowed to solve the issue for themselves. HE was going to let the people who settled in Kansas decide for themselves wheather they wanted to be a free or slave territory.
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