Entomology 313 Week One Notes
Entomology 313 Week One Notes Entomology 313
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeffrey Lynes on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Entomology 313 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Michael Saunders in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Entomology in Entomology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Entomology 313 1/11/16 Lecture 1 What is an insect? Member of the Phylum Arthropoda o Arthro – joint o Poda – foot o Exoskeleton o Segmented body arranged in regions Insect o 6-legged arthropods o 3 body regions Head Thorax Abdomen o Wings (insects are the only winged invertebrates) If name contains -pter- the insect has wings (Ex. Diptera) Insect diversity o Approximately 1,000,000 species currently known o Estimated 2-30 million undiscovered species o Make up 50% of all known life & 75% of all known animals o Beetles alone account for over 300,000 species What do they do? o Herbivores o Predators o Parisitoids Where do you find them? o Everywhere Only a small percentage of insects have a negative impact on humans What do they do? o Pollinate plants o Kill other insects o Spread plant and animal diseases o Recycle nutrients o Provide food for other organisms Entomology 313 1/13/16 Lecture 2 Structural Diversity of Insects Importance of Insects o Nutrient cycling o Plant reproduction (pollen transportation) o Community structure and population dynamics o Food web Origin of the insect body plan o The segments of insect ancestors fused into 3 distinct segments o Segments are also known as tagmata 3 insect body segments o Head o Thorax o Abdomen Insect Eye o Simple eyes (ocelli) used for detecting light and dark o Compound eyes used for vision Compound eyes contain hundreds of ommatidia Antennae o Evolved from legs o Used for odor detection, touch, taste, temperature, and/or humidity o Different types of antennae: setaceous, filiform, moniliform, clavate, capitate, serrate, pectinate, plumose, aristate, lamellate, geniculate Legs o Cursorial: designed for running o Fossorial: designed for burrowing/digging o Saltatorial: designed for jumping o Natatorial: designed for swimming o Raptorial: designed for grasping prey o Scansorial: designed for clinging Mouthparts o All contain the following parts: labrum, labium, maxilla, mandible o Chewing mouthparts: used for chewing things like leaves, grasses, etc. o Sucking mouthparts: tube-like maxilla, used for sucking nectar o Piercing-sucking mouthparts: labium makes sheath around maxillae & mandibles, used for piercing and sucking blood o Biting mouthparts: parts look like cutting mechanism, used for biting flesh o Sponging mouthparts: labium sponges food, used for secreting enzymes to break down food and then sponging dissolved food up Wings o Elytra: hardened forewings (Ex. Beetle forewings) o Hemelytra: half hardened, half membranous forewing (Ex. Stink Bug forewing) o Halteres: used for balance during flight (found on flies) o Sometimes used for sound production o Sometimes scaly (butterflies and moths), fringed (thrips), or hairy (caddisflies) Diversity and function o Mouthparts reflect insect diet o Antennae reflect communication o Legs reflect locomotion and habitat use o Wings reflect locomotion and defense Insect defense mechanisms o Crypsis/camouflage: Ex. walking stick looks like a stick, some caterpillars look like feces o Warning coloration: brightly colored insects are dangerous Also known as aposematic coloration o Mullerian mimicry: two or more unpalatable species resemble each other o Batesian mimicry: a harmless species resembles an unpalatable species Entomology 313 1/15/16 Lab 1 Lecture Insect External Anatomy Integument: continuous layer of sclerotized exoskeleton o Sclerotized: hardened Functions of integument o Support internal structures o Protect internal structures o Reduce water loss o Main support for wings and legs o Protects insect from pathoges o Helps with sensory reception and enables respiration o Waste material storage o Structural modifications such as horns, armor, etc. Parts of Integument o Epicuticle: sclerotized, waterproof outside layer o Exocuticle: sclerotized, inflexible middle layer o Endocuticle: soft, flexible inner layer o Epidermis: cell tissue that secretes epicuticle, exocuticle and endocuticle Bilaterally symmetric: when cut in half, both halves are exactly the same Dorsal is top, ventral is bottom, anterior is front, posterior is rear Head region o Key sensory organs: eyes (compound and ocelli), antennae o Provides protection for insect brain Antennae parts o Scape: first segment o Pedicel: second segment o Flagellum: remaining segments o Antennal sclerite: socket on head where antenna attaches Mouthparts o Labrum: upper lip o Maxilla o Mandible o Labium: lower lip o Differ depending on food source Thorax o Prothorax o Mesothorax o Metathorax o Wings attached to meso- and meta- thorax o One pair of legs attached to each segment o Wings Outgrowths of exoskeleton used for flight Many different types Veins provide both structure and flexibility Present in adult stage o Legs Coxa: fused to body Trochanter: attaches femur to coxa Femur: Large upper section of leg Tibia: Smaller lower section of leg attached to femur Tarsus: insect foot Tarsomeres: insect foot segments Abdomen o Holds alimentary canal, dorsal circulatory vessel, Malpighian tubules, fat body, and reproductive organs o Posterior segments formed into genitalia o Maximum of 11 segments, usually less o Each segment has tergum and sternum (protective dorsal and ventral plates, respectively) o Terga of segments 1-8 have spiracles Spiracles: respiratory ports
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