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by: Melanie Maino


Melanie Maino
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About this Document

These are the notes cover the end of Chapter 1 and beginning of Chapter 2. What the professor discussed in class about the chapters and what was important.
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Brianna Stinebaugh
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Research  Methods     2/8   Chapter  2   • End  of  chp  1     • 1879  the  birthday  of  psychology-­‐>  Wilhem  Wundt…created  the  first   psychological  research  lab…all  his  research  used  3  tools  of  the  scientific   method  (observation,  measurement,  and  experimentation)   • Pseudoscience:  any  field  of  study  giving  the  appearance  of  being  scientific   but  does  not  use  the  scientific  method  (fortune  telling,  horoscope,  etc)   • Psychological  Science:  uses  the  scientific  method   • ETHICS  CH  2…   • Human  population  are  typically  the  main  source  of  participants  for  research   • Animals  as  well   • 2  goals  in  mind  with  research…1)  benefit  humanity  2)  advance  the   psychological  field  of  study   • Safety  and  Health….physical  and  psychological  well-­‐being   • Responsible  Research  we  always  want  to  make  sure  we  are  benefitting   humanity  and  advancing  psychology….but  we  want  to  make  sure  our   research  is  safe…any  research  study  that  is  harmful  to  our  participants  is   undesirable  even  if  we  are  benefitting  humanity  and  advancing  psychology   • You  are  legally  responsible  for  your  participants  physical  and  mental  well-­‐ being   • Federal  Law-­‐  Title  45  Section  46:  it  is  requiring  that  any  institution  doing   research  that  accepts  funding  from  the  department  of  health  and  human   services  is  required  to  have  a  review  committee  set  up  to  review  the  research   being  done   • Review  committee  is  called  IRB…   • Institutional  Review  Board:  Reviews  and  evaluated  all  research  proposals   before  the  research  is  actually  done  and  data  is  collected.  Made  up  of  two   types  of  people….the  average  lay  person  and  people  who  are  experts  in   research  methods   • Will  this  study  put  your  participants  at  risk?  First  question  answered  by   the  IRB   • At  risk  ….  Is  any  harm  that  your  participants  might  receive  from   participating  in  this  study   • Risk/Benefit  Analysis  while  evaluating  your  application  to  answer  the   question…making  a  pro/con  risk  for  each  study…do  the  risks  outweigh  the   benefits?  If  they  do  then  the  study  is  a  no  go   • IRB   o 1-­‐Obtain  informed  consent  (when  possible)   o 2-­‐No  invasion  of  privacy   o 3-­‐No  coercion  or  forcing  participants  to  stay  in  the  study   o 4-­‐Minimum  stress   o 5-­‐Deception  only  when  there  are  NO  alternatives  (MUST  Debrief)   o 6-­‐Confidentiality   o 6-­‐+More   o 6-­‐Application  Process  not  only  do  they  need  your  application  but   also  supplements  that  participants  are  given   • 1-­‐  Informed  Consent  Form…any  participant  getting  involved  has  to  sign  and   agree  before  the  study  is  taken  place…giving  the  participants  all  of  the   information  that  they  need  to  know  before  agreeing  to  participate.   o Always  written   o Always  two  copies:  one  is  for  the  participant,  and  the  other  is  for  the   researcher  (P.I.  or  principle  investigator)  to  keep.   o both  copies  get  signed…total  of  four  signatures   o read  it  out  loud  to  participants   o participant  gets  a  chance  to  read  it  themselves   o a  chance  for  them  to  ask  any  questions  they  may  have  before  during   and  after  the  study;  especially  before.   o Finally,  you  collect  the  signatures   • If  any  participant  is  a  minor  (18&under)  or  cognitively  impaired  you  need  to   get  parental/  legal  guardian  consent…adds  two  more  copies  and  four  more   signatures  to  the  mix   • Getting  assent  from  the  individual…you  are  getting  the  consent  of  the  minor   or  cognitively  impaired  individual  to  want  to  participate  in  the  study…assent   outweighs  legal  guardian  consent.  (7&up)   • You  want  to  gear  your  consent  form  towards  the  population  you  are  eager  to   study   • List  of  what  needs  to  be  included  in  an  informed  consent  form…   o 1-­‐Description  of  research  project  you  are  working  on…as  much  detail   as  possible   o 2-­‐Description  of  methodology   ▯ What  will  participants  need  to  do?   ▯ What  do  they  need  to  know   o 3-­‐  Assurances  of  risks  and  benefits  (mentally  and  physically)   o 4-­‐  State  that  data  is  confidential   o 5-­‐  Voluntary-­‐  no  coercion  or  influence   o 6-­‐  Free  to  withdraw  at  any  time  in  the  study-­‐prior  or  during  study   o 7-­‐  Participation  or  decision  to  not  participate  will  NOT  affect  the   participant’s  status  in  any  way   o 8-­‐  You  will  answer  any  questions  the  participants  may  have  (state  in   writing)   o 9-­‐  Name  and  phone  #’s  of  P.I.,  faculty  sponsor  (if  applicable)  and   chairperson  of  IRB   o 10-­‐  two  lines…space  for  date  and  signature  of  participant  and  P.I.   2/10   • Deception   o Debrief  them  afterwards   • Confidentiality   o Code  names   o Group  averages…statistical  results   • Chp2   • Evolution  of  Ethics…   • WWII   • Nuremberg  code  of  1947:  this  is  was  a  code  of  ethical  standards  for  scientific   research;  formed  today’s  outline  of  the  ethical  standards  and  guidelines  that   we  go  by  today   • 1947-­‐  National  Commission  for  Protection  of  Human  Subjects  of  Biomedical   and  Behavioral  Research  was  created  as  part  of  the  U.S.  National  Research   Act…extension  of  Nuremberg  code…   • 1979-­‐  U.S.  Department  of  Health  Education,  and  Welfare  issued  a  Belmant   Report   o Government  policy  on  any  research  done  with  human  subjects.   o 3  basic  ethical  principles:     ▯ 1-­‐  respect  for  persons:  every  human  being  can  make  their  own   decisions  about  research;  extra  coverage  for  specific   populations  (pregnant  women,  prisoners,  children,  cognitively   impaired  people)…informed  consent  form   ▯ 2-­‐Beneficence:  maximize  the  benefits  of  our  studies  and   minimize  any  risk…risk/  benefit  analysis   ▯ 3-­‐Justice:  fairness;  treat  participant  fairly  and  collect  our   sample  fairly;   • National  Animal  Welfare  Act  (1966):  laid  out  general  standard  of  how  we  are   to  treat  our  animals  for  research   • IACUC-­‐  Institutional  Animal  Care  and  Use  Committee:  lay  people  that   represent  the  human  population,  experts  in  research  methods,  &  a  vet   (expertise  in  lab  science  animals)…protect  and  ensure  safety  of  these  animals   like  IRB  does  with  human  participants   • Fraud  in  Science   o honest  and  accurate  with  our  findings  and  what  we  decide  to  publish   o 1-­‐  data  falsification:  when  a  researcher  publishes  false  data   ▯ replication   ▯ peer  review/view   o 2-­‐  Plagiarism:  most  common  type  of  fraud;  represent  somebody  else’s   ideas,  words,  and  written  work  as  our  own  and  not  giving  them  credit   for  it.   ▯ Paraphrasing:  if  you  paraphrase  you  must  reference  the  source        


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