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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Research Methods 2/8 Chapter 2 • End of chp 1 • 1879 the birthday of psychology-‐> Wilhem Wundt…created the first psychological research lab…all his research used 3 tools of the scientific method (observation, measurement, and experimentation) • Pseudoscience: any field of study giving the appearance of being scientific but does not use the scientific method (fortune telling, horoscope, etc) • Psychological Science: uses the scientific method • ETHICS CH 2… • Human population are typically the main source of participants for research • Animals as well • 2 goals in mind with research…1) benefit humanity 2) advance the psychological field of study • Safety and Health….physical and psychological well-‐being • Responsible Research we always want to make sure we are benefitting humanity and advancing psychology….but we want to make sure our research is safe…any research study that is harmful to our participants is undesirable even if we are benefitting humanity and advancing psychology • You are legally responsible for your participants physical and mental well-‐ being • Federal Law-‐ Title 45 Section 46: it is requiring that any institution doing research that accepts funding from the department of health and human services is required to have a review committee set up to review the research being done • Review committee is called IRB… • Institutional Review Board: Reviews and evaluated all research proposals before the research is actually done and data is collected. Made up of two types of people….the average lay person and people who are experts in research methods • Will this study put your participants at risk? First question answered by the IRB • At risk …. Is any harm that your participants might receive from participating in this study • Risk/Benefit Analysis while evaluating your application to answer the question…making a pro/con risk for each study…do the risks outweigh the benefits? If they do then the study is a no go • IRB o 1-‐Obtain informed consent (when possible) o 2-‐No invasion of privacy o 3-‐No coercion or forcing participants to stay in the study o 4-‐Minimum stress o 5-‐Deception only when there are NO alternatives (MUST Debrief) o 6-‐Confidentiality o 6-‐+More o 6-‐Application Process not only do they need your application but also supplements that participants are given • 1-‐ Informed Consent Form…any participant getting involved has to sign and agree before the study is taken place…giving the participants all of the information that they need to know before agreeing to participate. o Always written o Always two copies: one is for the participant, and the other is for the researcher (P.I. or principle investigator) to keep. o both copies get signed…total of four signatures o read it out loud to participants o participant gets a chance to read it themselves o a chance for them to ask any questions they may have before during and after the study; especially before. o Finally, you collect the signatures • If any participant is a minor (18&under) or cognitively impaired you need to get parental/ legal guardian consent…adds two more copies and four more signatures to the mix • Getting assent from the individual…you are getting the consent of the minor or cognitively impaired individual to want to participate in the study…assent outweighs legal guardian consent. (7&up) • You want to gear your consent form towards the population you are eager to study • List of what needs to be included in an informed consent form… o 1-‐Description of research project you are working on…as much detail as possible o 2-‐Description of methodology ▯ What will participants need to do? ▯ What do they need to know o 3-‐ Assurances of risks and benefits (mentally and physically) o 4-‐ State that data is confidential o 5-‐ Voluntary-‐ no coercion or influence o 6-‐ Free to withdraw at any time in the study-‐prior or during study o 7-‐ Participation or decision to not participate will NOT affect the participant’s status in any way o 8-‐ You will answer any questions the participants may have (state in writing) o 9-‐ Name and phone #’s of P.I., faculty sponsor (if applicable) and chairperson of IRB o 10-‐ two lines…space for date and signature of participant and P.I. 2/10 • Deception o Debrief them afterwards • Confidentiality o Code names o Group averages…statistical results • Chp2 • Evolution of Ethics… • WWII • Nuremberg code of 1947: this is was a code of ethical standards for scientific research; formed today’s outline of the ethical standards and guidelines that we go by today • 1947-‐ National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was created as part of the U.S. National Research Act…extension of Nuremberg code… • 1979-‐ U.S. Department of Health Education, and Welfare issued a Belmant Report o Government policy on any research done with human subjects. o 3 basic ethical principles: ▯ 1-‐ respect for persons: every human being can make their own decisions about research; extra coverage for specific populations (pregnant women, prisoners, children, cognitively impaired people)…informed consent form ▯ 2-‐Beneficence: maximize the benefits of our studies and minimize any risk…risk/ benefit analysis ▯ 3-‐Justice: fairness; treat participant fairly and collect our sample fairly; • National Animal Welfare Act (1966): laid out general standard of how we are to treat our animals for research • IACUC-‐ Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee: lay people that represent the human population, experts in research methods, & a vet (expertise in lab science animals)…protect and ensure safety of these animals like IRB does with human participants • Fraud in Science o honest and accurate with our findings and what we decide to publish o 1-‐ data falsification: when a researcher publishes false data ▯ replication ▯ peer review/view o 2-‐ Plagiarism: most common type of fraud; represent somebody else’s ideas, words, and written work as our own and not giving them credit for it. ▯ Paraphrasing: if you paraphrase you must reference the source
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