Chapter 4 Vocabulary
Chapter 4 Vocabulary PSYC 1000
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 4 Vocabulary: Term: Definition: Connection: developmental a branch of psychology that Psychology→ the study of psychology studies physical, cognitive, Development→ physical, and social change cognitive, social change throughout the lifespan. zygote the fertilized egg; it enterszy (sounds like lie→ to lie an 2week period of rapid cell division and develops into egg goes (sounds likgo)into an embryo. a two(sounds likete)week period of cell division embryo the developing human “Yo, I’m her(sounds like organism from about 2 yo weeks after fertilization through the second month. Where the developing human is apparent. fetus the developing human The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. develops even more to the point where iteveloped all the wadown to its feet (sounds liket)/till birth teratogens (literally, “monster maker”) Terrifie(sounds liktera) agents, such as toxins, of monster “monster chemicals, and viruses, that can reach the embryo or maker”)“Toga! Toga!” (from fetus during prenatal animal house https://youtu.be/y1Mk7idVfcA development and cause harm. sounds liktogens where frat house boys got intoxicated (sounds like toxins). fetal alcohol syndrome physical and cognitive (FAS) abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions. habituation decreasing responsiveness It is no longer a habit with repeated stimulation. (sounds like habituation) As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a for the baby to be fully responsive to a familiar visual stimulus, their visual stimulus. interest wanes and they look away sooner. maturation biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. critical period an optimal period early in Critica→ important. The the life of an organism when important period to exposure to certain stimuli produce normal or experiences produces normal development. development. cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. schema a concept or framework that Scheme (sounds like organizes and interprets schema) is aorganized information. plan/framework of adapting our current understandings. assimilation interpreting our new Assimilate/adapt (sounds experiences in terms of our like assimilation)to our existing schemas. new experiences in terms of current understandings accommodation (1) in developmental similar to assimilation psychology, adapting our (≠experiences, current understandings (schemas) to incorporate =information,com sounds new information. (2) in like computer,omputers withhold a lot few sensation and perception, the process by which the information) eye’s lens changes shape to when it’s dark and someone focus near or far objects on rapidly switches on the lights, the retina. your eyes accommodate/fix to the change in brightness. sensorimotor stage in Piaget’s theory, the stagesensory ( sounds like (from birth to about 2 years sensoriimpressions and of age) during which infants motor (motor) activitie know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor PIAGET’S THEORY: FROM PIAGET'S THEORY activities. BIRTH TO 2 YEARS (basic/ early stage activities) object permanence the awareness that things objects= things are continue to exist even when permanent (sounds like not perceived. permanence) preoperational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stagePre=before the child (from about 2 to about 6 or comprehends mental 7 years of age) during which Operational → operations a child learns to use of concrete logic. language but does not yet comprehend the mental PIAGET’S THEORY operations of concrete logic. conservation the principle (which Piaget Conserve (sounds like believed to be a part of conservation) water→ water concrete operational is liquid, a property→ reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and properties can be number remain the same measures in mass and volume (reference back to despite changes in the forms of objects. general science) → as well as all other objects can be measured this way. egocentrism in Piaget’s theory, the the child is egocentric preoperational child’s (sounds likegocentrism) difficulty taking another’s point of view. and doesn't want to as difficulty taking someone else's point of viewut their own. theory of mind people’s ideas about their theory → a guess/thought own and others’ mental about someone else's or states—about their feelings, their own mental states. perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict. The show The Big Bang Theory isn't about science, but sicon about a group of scientistfeelings/ relationshipsPenny and Leonard thoughts Rajesh being afraid to talk to irls, and behaviors heldon’s OCD knocking on doors a certain amount of times concrete operational in Piaget’s theory, the stage Opposite of preoperational stage of cognitive development stage (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. formal operational stage in Piaget’s theory, the stage art museums are of cognitive development formalmature (12 and up) (normally beginning about age 12) during which people and exhibit bstract art/ concepts that the more begin to think logically mature can logically about abstract concepts. understand. autism spectrum disorder a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors. stranger anxiety the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life. temperament a person’s characteristic temper (sounds like emotional reactivity and temperament) intensity. bad temper→ negative emotional reactivity good temper→ positive emotional reactivity basic trust according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers. adolescence The transition period from From childhood (where you childhood to adulthood, are taught lessons→ sounds extending from puberty to likeesecence) independence. to adult (sounds like dol) hood. puberty the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing. identity our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles. social identity the “we” aspect of our social (sounds like society→ selfconcept; the part of our as a membership/group→ answer to “Who am I? “ that “we”) comes from our group memberships. intimacy in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood. emerging adulthood for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to midtwenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood. menopause the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines crosssectional study a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another. We know the middle bubble to be where the two main bubbles cross/ the crosssectional area. longitudinal study research in which the same Long (sounds like long) people are restudied and period of time, it (sounds retested over a long period like it) studies (sounds of time. like study) me. Denial (sounds like dinal) to redo (sounds like retest/restudy) something over and over again even though you already know the outcome) social clock the culturally preferred social→ social events timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, clock→ preferred timing and retirement.
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