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Chapter 4 Vocabulary

by: Naida Adams

Chapter 4 Vocabulary PSYC 1000

Naida Adams
GPA 2.4

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About this Document

Here is a list of this chapters important terms along with a connection so that you can remember the terms. You can print this out and create notes cards or a matching game to study, or simply read...
Introductory Psychology
Christyn Dolbier
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 4 Vocabulary:  Term:  Definition:  Connection:   developmental  a branch of psychology that  Psychology→​ the study of   psychology  studies physical, cognitive, Development→​ ​physical,  and social change  cognitive, social change   throughout the lifespan.   zygote  the fertilized egg; it enterszy (sounds like lie→ to lie an  2­week period of rapid cell  division and develops into  egg​   goes (sounds likgo­​)into  an embryo.  a two(sounds likete)week  period of cell division   embryo  the developing human  “Yo, I’m her(sounds like  organism from about 2  ­yo  weeks after fertilization  through the second month.  Where the developing  human is apparent.   fetus  the developing human  The developing human  organism from 9 weeks  after conception to birth.  develops even more to the  point where it​eveloped  all the wadown to its feet  (sounds lik​et)/till birth   teratogens  (literally, “monster maker”) Terrifie(sounds liktera)  agents, such as toxins,  of monster “monster  chemicals, and viruses, that  can reach the embryo or  maker”​)“Toga! Toga!” (from  fetus during prenatal  animal house­  development and cause  harm.   sounds lik­togens​ where  frat house boys got  intoxicated (sounds like  toxins).    fetal alcohol syndrome  physical and cognitive    (FAS)  abnormalities in children  caused by a pregnant  woman’s heavy drinking. In  severe cases, symptoms  include noticeable facial  misproportions.   habituation  decreasing responsiveness  It is no longer a habit  with repeated stimulation.  (sounds like habituation)  As infants gain familiarity  with repeated exposure to a  for the baby to be fully  responsive to a familiar  visual stimulus, their  visual stimulus.   interest wanes and they  look away sooner.  maturation   biological growth processes    that enable orderly changes  in behavior, relatively  uninfluenced by experience.  critical period  an optimal period early in  Critica→ important. The  the life of an organism when  important period to  exposure to certain stimuli  produce normal  or experiences produces  normal development.  development.     cognition  all the mental activities    associated with thinking,  knowing, remembering, and  communicating.   schema  a concept or framework that  Scheme (sounds like  organizes and interprets  schema) ​ is aorganized  information.  plan/framework of  adapting our current  understandings.     assimilation  interpreting our new  Assimilate/adapt (sounds  experiences in terms of our  like assimilation)to our  existing schemas.   new experiences in terms  of current  understandings    accommodation  (1) in developmental  ­similar to assimilation  psychology, adapting our  (≠experiences,  current understandings  (schemas) to incorporate  =information​,­com​ sounds  new information. (2) in  like computer,​omputers  withhold a lot ​few  sensation and perception,  the process by which the  information)   eye’s lens changes shape to  ­when it’s dark and someone  focus near or far objects on rapidly switches on the lights,  the retina.  your eyes accommodate/fix  to the change in brightness.   sensorimotor stage  in Piaget’s theory, the stagesensory ( sounds like    (from birth to about 2 years  sensori­​​impressions and    of age) during which infants motor (motor) activitie​    know the world mostly in      terms of their sensory    impressions and motor  PIAGET’S THEORY: FROM  PIAGET'S THEORY   activities.   BIRTH TO 2 YEARS  ​(basic/  early stage activities)  object permanence  the awareness that things  objects= things are  continue to exist even when  permanent (sounds like  not perceived.   permanence)   preoperational stage  in Piaget’s theory, the stagePre=before the child    (from about 2 to about 6 or  comprehends mental     7 years of age) during which  Operational → operations    a child learns to use  of concrete logic.     language but does not yet    comprehend the mental  PIAGET’S THEORY   operations of concrete logic.   conservation  the principle (which Piaget  Conserve (sounds like  believed to be a part of  conservation)​ water→ water  concrete operational  is liquid, a property→   reasoning) that properties  such as mass, volume, and  properties can be  number remain the same  measures in mass and  volume ​(reference back to  despite changes in the  forms of objects.   general science) → as well  as all other objects can be  measured this way.   egocentrism  in Piaget’s theory, the  the child is egocentric  preoperational child’s  (sounds like​gocentrism)​  difficulty taking another’s  point of view.   and doesn't want to​ as  difficulty taking someone  else's point of view​ut their  own.  theory of mind  people’s ideas about their  theory → a guess/thought   own and others’ mental  about someone else's or  states—about their feelings,  their own mental states. perceptions, and thoughts,  and the behaviors these  might predict.     The show The Big Bang  Theory isn't about science,  but sicon about a group of  scientistfeelings/  relationshipsPenny and  Leonard​ thoughts­ Rajesh  being afraid to talk to  irls, and behaviors­ ​ heldon’s  OCD knocking on doors a  certain amount of times  concrete operational  in Piaget’s theory, the stage Opposite of preoperational  stage  of cognitive development  stage   (from about 6 or 7 to 11  years of age) during which  children gain the mental  operations that enable them  to think logically about  concrete events.  formal operational stage  in Piaget’s theory, the stage art museums are  of cognitive development  formalmature (12 and up)  (normally beginning about  age 12) during which people  and exhibit​ bstract art/  concepts that the more  begin to think logically  mature can logically  about abstract concepts.  understand.   autism spectrum disorder  a disorder that appears in    childhood and is marked by  significant deficiencies in  communication and social  interaction, and by rigidly  fixated interests and  repetitive behaviors.   stranger anxiety  the fear of strangers that    infants commonly display,  beginning by about 8  months of age.  attachment  an emotional tie with    another person; shown in  young children by their  seeking closeness to the  caregiver and showing  distress on separation.  imprinting  the process by which certain  animals form attachments  during a critical period very  early in life.     temperament  a person’s characteristic  temper (sounds like  emotional reactivity and  temperament)   intensity.  bad temper→ negative  emotional reactivity   good temper→ positive  emotional reactivity     basic trust  according to Erik Erikson, a    sense that the world is  predictable and trustworthy;  said to be formed during  infancy by appropriate  experiences with responsive  caregivers.   adolescence  The transition period from  From childhood​  (where you  childhood to adulthood,  are taught lessons→ sounds  extending from puberty to  like­esecence) ​   independence.   to adult (sounds like ​dol­)  hood.    puberty  the period of sexual    maturation, during which a  person becomes capable of  reproducing.   identity  our sense of self; according    to Erikson, the adolescent’s    task is to solidify a sense of  self by testing and      integrating various roles.    social identity  the “we” aspect of our  social​ (sounds like society→  self­concept; the part of our  as a membership/group→ ​  answer to “Who am I? “ that  “we”)​   comes from our group  memberships.   intimacy  in Erikson’s theory, the    ability to form close, loving  relationships; a primary  developmental task in late  adolescence and early  adulthood.   emerging adulthood  for some people in modern    cultures, a period from the  late teens to mid­twenties,  bridging the gap between  adolescent dependence and  full independence and  responsible adulthood.   menopause  the time of natural cessation    of menstruation; also refers  to the biological changes a  woman experiences as her  ability to reproduce declines   cross­sectional study  a study in which people of  different ages are compared  with one another.    We know the middle bubble  to be where the two main  bubbles cross/ the  cross­sectional area.   longitudinal study  research in which the same  Long (sounds like long­)  people are restudied and  period of time, it (sounds  retested over a long period  like ­it­) studies (sounds  of time.   like study) me.   Denial (sounds like ­dinal) to  re­do (sounds like  retest/restudy)  something  over and over again even  though you already know the  outcome)  social clock  the culturally preferred  social→ social events   timing of social events such  as marriage, parenthood,  clock→ preferred timing   and retirement.   


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