CL 113 Golden Apples Chapter 11
CL 113 Golden Apples Chapter 11 CL 113LEC
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Palermo on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CL 113LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Woodard, R D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Myth & Religion Anc World in Classical Studies at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Golden Apples Chapter 11: the Kingship In Heaven theme Introduction The most important story is of the Greeks- where it begins with the emergence of Ouranos out of Chaos and ends with the final triumph of Zeus over Kronos Formed in the Malinowskian Provided a firm foundation for religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Greek-speaking community The parenthood of these traditions remain unknown There is a single pattern present through all of the different versions of the story: 1. An existing generation of gods was preceded by 2 (in some cases 3) earlier generations of supernatural beings 2 .Each succeeding generation is presided over by a “king in heaven” who has assumed the power of his predecessor 3. There is generally a 4 figure, a villain/monster who is acting on behalf of the deposed king challenges the final ruler and must overcome before the latter can assert full authority The Greek version The earliest/most important Greek source of data concerning the theme of these myths The Theogony- concerned primarily with the events surrounding Zeus’ rise to power as the king in heaven Serves as a major source of information about cosmogonic and theogonic matters for most greek and roman poets 2 ndsource is found in Bibliotheca by Apollodorus He includes certain data that are also found in The Theogony- reflecting an ongoing tradition 3 source- Dionysiaca of Nonnos which reflects a popular tradition unknown to both Hesoid or Apollodorus in both Bibliotheca and Theogony, the first king in heaven is Ouranos (heaven or sky) Theogony Heaven is born from Gaia (Earth) who is autochtonous (formed/originating in the place where found) Gaia is preceeded by Chaos o Nonpersonified state/condition Gaia takes a husband Now the first generation is here Bibliotheca Both sky and earth are autochtonous nd Gaia and Ouranos getting married leads to the 2 generation Earth and Heaven have intercourse and create: Okeanos, Koios, and Krios and Hyperion and Iapetos, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne.. etc. After this- the Hundred-handed are born: Kottos, Briareos, and Gyes (which Hesoid called the presumptuous children) After them, she gives birth to Cyclopes Lastly, she bears Kronos The term Titan (male) and Titanide (female) are introduced to refer to these offspring above Ouranos was jealous of his offspring, especially Cyclopes o He hid them all in a secret place we assume was Tartaros “gloomy place in Hades” Kronos is the only one willing to take action He emasculates Ouranos by using a jagged sickle (blade) The blood that came from Ouranos’ castration spills into the sea impregnating the Earth which leads to the birth of the seaborne members- Aphrodite Kronos becomes king in heaven Ouranos is not killed- he is just powerless He marries his sister Rhea There is a prophecy that says that one of his children are destined to overthrow him so he swallows his offspring as soon as they are born o His children included: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon Rhea hides Zeus in Cretes so he’s not swallowed o This event is parallel to Gaia’s deception to Ouranos Zeus is aided by Earth A war begins between Kronos and his siblings and Zeus, his mother, and siblings o This is where Zeus is first associated with the sky and thunderbolt Having defeated the Titans, Zeus is now the 3 king in heaven Zeus- king Olympians cannot assume power until the monster Typhon (Typhoeus) is defeated o Typhon is the youngest child of Earth o He has snakes growing from his body Little effort is made by Zeus to defeat Typhon Apollodorus claims that Zeus used an adamantine sickle (blade) to inflict a wound on Typhon as he fled to Mount Kasios Now Zeus is the unchallenged king in heaven Summary of Greek Version: Order of Kings in Heaven- Ouranos (married to Gaia), Kronos (married to Rhea), Zeus Hurrian-Hittite Version Labeled Song of Ullikummi 13 century B.C. Four generations of gods 1 generation: Alalu- reigns for 9 years Father of Anu Anu rebels against him and becomes the 2 ndking in heaven nd 2 generation: Anu He too has a rebellious offspring- Kumarbi Anu only reigns for 9 years th In the 9 year Kumarbi rebels The elder god fled, but Kumarbi pulled him down from heaven and absorbs his manhood o Similar to the emasculation of Ouranos Anu has been impregnated with 5 heavy divinities: The weather god, the river goddess Aranzah, Tashmishu the vizer of the gods and the other two were not named Kumarbi occupies the throne rd 3 generation: Kumarbi Attempts to avoid bearing these unwelcomed offspring by spitting out Anu’s seed There was a miraculous birth of Teshub, who is seen as the parallel to Zeus Second Hittite Myth Contains many important parallels to the previously discussed Typhon story Kumarbi is dethrone and has intercourse with a rock producing a Stone-monster (Diorite/Ulikummi) Ulikummi Destined to be a rebel against Teshub The first God to see him is the Sun-god o Who tells Teshub he is terrified of his appearance o His sister Ishtar (Aranzah) comforts him and tries to enchant Ulikummi through music It is later discovered that the monster is deaf and blind Teshub tries to fight him, but he’s too powerful The former gods are ordered to produce a “ancient tool” aka sickle o Used to separate Earth and Heaven Ea cuts Ullikummi making him powerless o Parallel to Zeus’s struggle with the cutting tool with Typhon and Ouranos by Kronos o The conflict between Teshub and Ullikummi is a merger of the Titanomachia and the Typhon fight Phoenician Version Regarded as the intermediary between the Hittites and the Greeks First king in heaven is named Eliun (Hypsistos aka Highest) o His wife is Bruth They give birth to a son- Ouranos and a daughter named Ge or Gaia Ge and Ouranos get married and have 4 sons El (aka Kronos), Baitylos, Dagon, and Atlas Conflict between Ouranos and his wife and El (Kronos) begins Ouranos tries to destroy his rebellious offspring El drives a spear into his father and becomes the next king in heaven Ouranos flees unharmed El and his wife have a son Baal who succeeds him Baal-4 generation takes over without much conflict Parallel to Zeus Order of kings- Eliun, Ouranos, El, Baal Iranian Version Shahnameh Three Iranian kings that are comparable with Ouranos, Kronos, Zeus is… Jamshid, Zohak, and Feridun Jamshid is preceded by 3 figures, Kaiumers o He is the son of Tahumers o Jamshid aka Ouranos lacks autochthonous or truly divine origin o Jamshid is overthrown by Zohak Zohak- occupies an ambiguous position o He is both Typhon and Kronos o Characterized as simply the son of an Arabian king who is invited to come to Iran and replace Jamshid o Overthrown by Feridun Feridun occupies position of Zeus o No offspring o Has a desire to consume human beings o The serpent king has a vision that Feridun will overcome Zohak so he hides him o Uses a club, the head that is shaped like a cow, in memory of Purmaieh This conflict between Feridun and Zohak is parallel to the one between Zeus and Typhon Order of kings- Jamshid (Ouranos), Zohak (Kronos), Feridun (Zeus) Norse Version Ginnungagap (Greek Chaos) can be translated as yawning void Created in 2 regions: Muspellheim on the south (Land of Fire) and Niflheim on the north (Land of Mist) Ice crystals combined with sparks created Ymir Ymir First being Defined as a giant of enormous proportions Lies down and sleeps 2 things happen when he sleeps: a second autochthonous creature appears, a cow named Audhumla and Ymir gives birth to offspring: Thurdgemir and Bergelmir While Ymir sleeps, the cow nourishes him and licks the srdty ice which uncovers hair and then the body of a 3 autochthon: Buri Audhumla serves as a link between these two generationally Giants Buri A second three-generational line descends Son: Bor Bor marries a giantess named Bestla and they produce Odin, Vili, and Ve (Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades) They are the first of the Aesir (Gods) as opposed to giants Odin and his siblings cut up Ymir After the Giants are defeated by Odin, mankind is created Babylonian Version Enuma-Elish Divinities: Lahamu and Lahamu, Anshar and Kishar, and Anu Ea occupies Kronos “all wise” position The gods were under leadership of Ea- 2 ndgeneration Apsu is annoyed and wants the gods to be gone Ea slays Apsu- parallel to Zeus beating Kronos- o Before he slays him- he rips off the former’s tiara/halo which is symbolic for the emasculation theme o Comparable to castration Ea’s wife is named Damkina, she gives birth to Marduk who is Zeus in this version Marduk kills Tiamat o After this Marduk and Ea create heaven and earth from Tiamat’s inflated body Marduk is now reigning as king in heaven Theogony of Dunnu Two autochthons- Hain and Earth They give birth to Sea (Tiamat) and Amakandu Amakandu is seduced by his mother (Earth) He slays Hain and lays him to rest He marries Sea (his sister—Kronos/Rhea) who gives birth to Lahar Lahar produces an offspring- River who eventually kills Lahar and Sea River- 3 generation WHO OCCUPIES WHAT POSITION: Ouranos: Anu- Hittite Ouranos- Phoenician Jamshid- Iranian Buri- Norse Kronos: Kumarbi - Hittite El- Phoenician Zohak- Iranian Bor- Norse Ea- Babylonian Hain- Babylonian version2 Zeus: Teshub- Hittite Baal- Phoenician Feridun- Iranian Odon- Norse Apsu- Babylonian Marduk- Babylonian version2 Typhon: Ulikummi- Hittite
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