New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Archaeology Notes- Week 4

by: emilyecclestone

Intro to Archaeology Notes- Week 4 ANT 112

Marketplace > Wake Forest University > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANT 112 > Intro to Archaeology Notes Week 4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

approaching archaeological sites: excavation
Introduction to Archaeology
Dr. Verity Whalen
Class Notes
Archaeology, Anthropology
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Archaeology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by emilyecclestone on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 112 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Verity Whalen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Wake Forest University.

Similar to ANT 112 at WFU

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for Intro to Archaeology Notes- Week 4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/16/16
Week 4 Approaching Archaeology Sites: Excavation Excavation--> second primary part of archaeology What is Excavation? •   "the digging" •   "finding the cool stuff" •   Very careful •   Based on scientific methodology Why do Archaeologists Excavate? •   Provides deeper understanding of social processes o   Survey= regional perspective o   Excavation= detailed, local perspective •   Gives a nuance understanding •   Can have drawbacks o   Sites can be an outlier, not relevant to the rest of the case study (only if excavated) •   Best practice--> use both survey and excavation together Principles of Archaeological Excavation •   Excavation o   Principle of context •   Physical location where remains are found in the archaeological record •   Looting disturbs context •   No context= no data •   Provenience= precise 3D location of remains •   Datum--> vertical point §   A point that provides a point of reference for measuring depth…3D point in space •   A grid provides a means of controlling horizontal point •   Matrix §   Physical substance surrounding remains •   Principle of Superposition §   Layers of earth are stratified §   When *undisturbed* top strata are younger than lower layers •   Oldest layers on bottom, newest on top (except fault block mountains--> reversed) §   If disturbed, must take a closer look at the stratigraphy   • Principle of Association §   The relationship between an artifact and its surroundings Types of Excavation   • Horizontal Excavation o   Exposing a broad area of a site to reconstruct a particular moment in time •   i.e. Pompeii •   Vertical Excavation o   Exposing the record sequence of events through small but deep___ Week 4 •   Working in Squares o   Grid systems vs excavating within buildings •   Grid squares §   Easy to work with squares §   Can easily add more units §   Gives control of what you are excavating •   Household Excavation o   Using the actual wall of the building to be the unit you are excavating Recovering Artifacts •   Dry Screening •   Water Screening o   Use water to flush sediment through a metal screen   • Flotation o   By placing materials in water--> most artifacts will float to the top Why Dig? •   Digging is destructive--> you can’t un-dig   • "STOP, think, survey, discuss, argue, inform…THEN DIG" •   Only excavate when… o   Necessary for research goal o   All other avenues have been exhausted Preservation & Archaeological Interpretation Archaeological Record is incomplete •   Didn’t make it into the record because it did preserve What evidence is there? •   Garbage and debris left behind •   Tombs--> intentional purpose for it •   When people move they take everything with them o   Therefore what is left behind was garbage, not important, not valuable •   EXCEPT for rapid abandonment o   i.e. Pompeii--> volcanic explosion--> natural disaster Issue of Preservation •   Stuff rots, erodes away •   Perishable (organic remains) - quick to decompose o   Cloth, nets, hide, wood •   Semi- perishable ("hard" organic remains) o   Bone, seeds, burnt w ood •   Non-perishable o   Stone, ceramic, metal What impacts how sites form? •   Archaeological sites= palimpsests o   Don’t represent things exactly how they were Week 4 •   Product of human activity behavior •   Product of natural factors o   Flora and fauna content, geographical sur rounding/location, geological •   Post-abandonment--> process of transformation o   Nature takes over--> Grass grows over, wind erosion, water erosion   Archaeological sites never stop transforming • Environment & Preservation   Certain environments lessen decomposition= good preservation • o   Desert environment provides good preservation o   Ice is another good kind of preservation o   Nothing preserves in a jungle •   Soil is too rich •   Even pottery decays/breaks up Preservation & Interpretati on •   What is left behind and preserved impacts interpretation o   i.e. domestic vs ritual space •   Reconstructing Past Behavior o   Going from static facts to dynamic human behavior o   Going through one's "garbage"


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.