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by: Anna Cappelli

CPO2001Ch.5 CPO2001

Anna Cappelli
GPA 3.85

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these notes cover the 3 essential readings for Ch.5
Comparative Politics
Dr. Sebastian Elischer
Class Notes
Comparative Politics, Politics, political science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Cappelli on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CPO2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Sebastian Elischer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Tuesday, February 16, 2016 Ch.5 Readings What Democracy is… and is not by Schmitter & Karl one major theme of essay: democracy does not consist of a single unique set of institutions. there are many types and their diverse practices produce a similarly varied set of effects a regime is the various patterns which need to be known/practiced by all to work properly — preferred mechanism of institution is written body of laws democracies depend of presence of rulers public realm encompasses the making of collective norma and choices that are binding on the society an backed by state coercion liberal democracy advocates circumscribing the public realm as narrowly as possible all regimes have rulers and a public realm, but only to the extent that they are democratic do they have citizens criteria for citizenship: used to be very difficult, now fairly standard competition has not always been essential - since The Federalist Papers it has become widely accepted that comp among factions is a necessary evil in democracies that operate on a more than local scale most popular definition of democracy equates it with regular elections electoralism - the fallacy in thinking the mere presence of elections= democracy modern democracy offers a variety of competitive processes and channels for the expression of interests and values another image of democracy - majority rule cooperation has always been central; must cooperate in order to compete representatives do most of the real work in modern democracies 1 Tuesday, February 16, 2016 making a democracy possible: (by Robert Dahl) control over gov decision about policy is vested in elected officials elected officials are chosen in frequent elections where coercion is uncommon most adults have right to vote in election of officials most adults have right to run for elective offices citizens can express themselves without punishment on political matters citizens can seek alternative sources of info citizens can form independent associations (political parties and interest groups) authors agree with this list but propose 2 additional reasons: popularly elected officials must be able to exercise their constitutional powers without being subjected to overriding opposition from unelected officials the polity must be self-governing - act independently of constraints imposed by some other overarching political system democracies differ in consensus, participation, access, responsiveness, majority rule, parliamentary sovereignty, party government, pluralism, federalism, presidentialism, and checks & balances WHAT THEY ARE NOT: not necessarily more efficient economically than other forms of gov. not necessarily more efficient administratively not likely to appear more orderly, consensual, stable or governable governability is a challenge in all regimes - not just democratic ones democracies will have more societies and polities it will not necessarily bring in its wake econ growth, social peace, free markets or “end of ideology” 2 Tuesday, February 16, 2016 Constitutional choices for new democracies by Lijphart focuses on choices between plurality elections & PR and between parliamentary & presidential forms of gov. author believes electoral system is an equally vital element in democratic constitutional design the type of electoral system used is related to development of country;s party system, type of executive, and relationship between executive and legislature plurality - likely 2 party system, 1 party gov., and executives dominant to legislature PR - likely multi-party, coalition gov., and more = executive-legislature power relations the relationships are mutual if democratic political engineers desire too promote either the majoritarian cluster of characteristics or consensus cluster, the most practical way to do so is by choosing the appropriate electoral system variations among PR systems - extreme and moderate 4 basic types of democracy Presidential Parliamentary Plurality United States UK, India, Jamaica, Malaysia Philippines Old Commonwealth PR Latin America Western Europe latin american proves the combo pf presidential and PR an unattractive option Europe adopted PR for 2 reasons: there was a problem of ethnic and religious minorities AND the dynamic of the democratization process main purpose of PR is to facilitate minority representation - so it outperforms plurality another democratic goal is political equality- more likely to prevail in economic equality parliamentary-PR is better for accommodating ethnic differences and has a slight edge in economic policy making 3 Tuesday, February 16, 2016 The Rise of State-Nations by Stepan, Linz, & Yadav old wisdom: territorial boundaries of a state must coincide with the perceived cultural boundaries of a nation — this understanding requires that every state must contain within itself one and not more than one culturally homogenous nation, that every state should be a nation, and that every nation should be a state 3 categories of states: states that have strong cultural diversity (Canada, Spain, and Belgium) states that are culturally quite diverse but whose diversity is nowhere organized by territorially based (US & Switzerland) states that are more culturally homogenous (Japan, Portugal, and Scandinavia) “nation-state” policies stand for a political-institutional approach that tries to make the political boundaries of the state and the presumes cultural boundaries of the nation match “state-nation” policies stand for a political-institutional approach that respects and protects multiple by complementary sociocultural identities in democratic societies, “state-nation” often take form of federalism (and often asymmetrical federalism) can be asymmetrical federal or unitary state both individual rights and collective recognition needed parliamentary polity-wide and “centric-regional” parties and careers politically integrates but not culturally assimilated populations cultural nationalists in power mobilizing against secessionist nationalists a pattern of multiple but complementary identities they argue that some state-nation policies can be of use in unitary states that are not notion-states 4


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