New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio1103K: Week of Feb. 22 Notes

by: Nzinga Oby

Bio1103K: Week of Feb. 22 Notes Biol 1103k

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 1103k > Bio1103K Week of Feb 22 Notes
Nzinga Oby
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Introductory biology I

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Introductory biology I notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover the lectures of 02/17, 02/22 and 02/24. In the syllabus, these lectures are titled Modern Theory of Evolution, History of Life on Earth and Chemistry of Life. Bolded, colored and ...
Introductory biology I
David blaustein
Class Notes
Biology, Intro Bio, GSU, Modern Evolution, Chemistry, History of life on earth




Popular in Introductory biology I

Popular in Biology

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nzinga Oby on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1103k at Georgia State University taught by David blaustein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Introductory biology I in Biology at Georgia State University.


Reviews for Bio1103K: Week of Feb. 22 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/16/16
Process of evolution= ​Violations of H­W assumptions      ( at one point every one of these assumptions will be  violated)  1. Mutations   a. LEVELS:   i. lethal (deadly),   ii. deleterious (bad),  iii. neutral (didnt change function of protein),  iv.  beneficial ( rare, like warm blooded)  b. types:​ point mutations, transpositions, additions,  deletions, environmental factors  c. non­directional​ (OR random) * mutations do not happen  for a reason, they are random then natural selection  occurs and determine levels  2. Migration   a. gene flow​­­­­­> free reproduction, if you want to  maintain species you must have a free gene flow,  interrupted gene flow leads to differential  adaptations   i. redistribution of genes  3. Population size   a. degree of importance that ​chance​ plays is a  consequence of pop, size   i. genetic drift:​ a change of allelic frequencies in  a small population due to c​ hance   1. population bottleneck​ ex: african seal  hunting    2. founder effect​: A newly founded population  with new traits          ex: amish, pregnant  bird stopping on island  4. Random mating   a. selectivity:​ limited mobility, behavioral distinctions  i. hareem breeding ​ the dominant males with the  receptive/mature females, this restricts numbers  ex: african seal)  ii. assortive mating  ​ (“like mates with like”, find  something that's comfortable or in common)  iii. sexual selection​ (the males show off and the  female makes the choice ex: birds/ peacocks)  5. Non­equivalency of genotype​s ie natural selection   a. natural selection works on phenotypes​ (cow eating  purple flowers)  b. Three types of selection processes:  1. stabilizing selection ​ (select for the  average and against the extreme, ex: back in  the day if babies were too big moms died, if  babies were too little they died)    2. disruptive selection​ (average dies out and  extremes are selected ex: beaks on islands)          3. directional selection ​ ( what used to be an  extreme is now the average ex: giraffe)           Results of Natural selection ​(always results in  increased fitness)  1. Adaptation​ ( to better compete on both levels)  a. biotic   b. abiotic   2.  (so that you are able to better interact within...)  Competition  a. intraspecific/ community  b. interspecific/ population  3. Co­evolution​ (changes in one dictates changes in either)  a. predator and prey (ex: horses and the silica in grass)  4. Speciation​ [creation of new species]  a. phyletic evolution​ X (straight line evolution, changes  are small but beginning and end are drastic, not many  examples of this)  b. divergent evolution**  1. geographic isolation​ ( lack of gene  flow/interrupted gene flow) (allopatric  speciation, barrier is removed but there is  still no ability to reproduction)  a. different environmental pressures­­­­>  changes   b. small pop.­­­­> genetic drift   2. adaptive radiation ​(different forms of a  species that arise because of different  demands)  a. unoccupied niches   b. “special” adaptation* (ex: warm  blooded, hunting year round)   3. polyploidy­​­­> instant speciation (plants)  (sympatric speciation)    Maintaining Reproductive Isolation   (once you have a new species it tends to isolate, 2 different  species are reproductively isolated)    A.  Premating (prezygotic) isolating mechanisms ​ {never allow  sperm and egg together= no zygote }  a. geographical   b. ecological​ (you have different resource requirements  ex: birds, different resources for nesting)  c. temporal​ (time frames/seasons for sexual maturity)  d. behavioral​ (require right combination of behavioral  attractions)  e. mechanical incompatibility ​(if the genitalia don’t  fit)  B. Postmating (postzygotic) isolating mechanisms​ {sperm and  egg together but not working)  a. gametic incompatibility  ​ (there will be no  fertilization)  b. hybrid inviability​ (this hybrids may not live)  i. incompatible developmental programs  ​ (elephant and  mayfly)  ii. harmful recessives  ​ (heterozygotes die)  iii. behavioral hybrid   c. hybrid infertility​ (ex: mules cannot reproduce)  Extinction   ● localized distribution​ (species only found in one small  area, if these area is eliminated so is this species)  ● overspecialization​ (way too specific eating  or specific  growth patterns ex:everglades kites and snails or human  brain sensory patterns)    Spontaneous generation­​  popular view of 1600s and before:  A. life arises from nonliving matter   B. disproved by Redi (1668){maggots and fish in a jar, fly  larva left on top}  C. Pasteur and Tyndall (mid 1800s)  {broth and exposure to  pre­existing organisms}    If like begets life, how did first life arise?  A. Prebiotic evolution­​  Oparin and Haldane (1920s­1930s)  a. life arises from nonliving matter through chemical  reactions (through normal chemical reactions you can  generate what you need for living systems)  B. Prebiotic Earth  a. Earth cools to temperature that permits water to occur as  liquid   i. salty oceans accumulate  ii. chemical composition of atmosphere​: (what’s in the  earth to make cells?)  1. carbon dioxide  2. ammonia  3. nitrogen   4. methane  5. hydrogen  6. water vapor   7. NO molecular OXYGEN (O^2, began with an  anaerobic atmosphere)  C. Can biological molecules spontaneously occur?  a. proteins, carbs, nucleotides, lipids  i. 1950s Experiments by Stanley Miller​:  1. Duplicate above conditions in sealed flask, add  hear and electrical charge  a. with oxygen=no organic molecules (not our  friend early on b/c of high reactivity,  very toxic)  b. without oxygen= organic molecules occur  D. How did organic molecules assemble to become “life”?  a. Primary requirement:​ self­replicant   i. In living cells:  1. DNA­­­­> RNA­­­­> enzyme (protein) **  a. DNA and RNA are composed of nucleotides  which can be generated in Miller’s  experiments   b. Under correct condition, DNA and RNA  replicate themselves  2. RNA came first? One possibility (of many  proposed)  a. RNA enzyme hypothesis​­ formation of  “ribozymes”  b. ribozymes help synthesis more ribozymes  c. make a lot of mistakes (mutations)  d. some mutations are beneficial and  accumulate  e. next stage­ ribozymes make proteins to take  over their jobs  f. Finally­ DNA synthesized (protection from  “rival” ribozymes)  b. Formation of the Cell​: Incorporation of replicating  molecules in protective membrane   i. Microspheres:​    1. hollow spheres created by large organic  molecules (phospholipids(cell membrane made of  this****), cell like structures)  2. Absorb material from outside, grow, divide  3. Ribozymes incorporated into microspheres   E. the Age of Microbes​­ 3.5 bya (fossil evidence)**  a. First cells­ prokaryotic​ (no nucleus), rod shaped bacteria  fossil  i. nutrition­”primordial soup” heterotrophs (they ARE  consumers, they are NOT undergoing photosynthesis  YET)  1. REMINDER: no oxygen; energy via anaerobic  fermentation  a. Sugars­­­> alcohols CO2= E  b. Proto Microbes accumulate; begin to compete for E sources­  strong selection pressure   c. Adaptation ­­­> other E sources­­­> photosynthesis  (resources in soup become limited so they must begin  photosynthesis)  F. The Introduction of Oxygen to the Atmosphere​­­3 bya  a. modern photosynthetic process­ produces oxygen  b. very toxic compound­­­­> oxidizes organic compounds (rust)  c. Oxygen accumulates to high levels by 2.2 bya ( WE WERE  ANAEROBIC FOR HALF OF OUR TIME)  d. What did Life do?  i. Adapt­­­> increased tolerance to oxygen   ii. Today= intolerant organisms are confined to anaerobic  environments (adapt or die)  iii. Approx. 2 bya= oxygen reacts w/sunlight­­­> ozone  buildup in atmospheric (O3)  1. Harmful UV light is filtered out by ozone;  microbes can live near sea surface  iv. Rise of Eukaryotes​ (1.4­2.5 bya)  1. Major Events:  a. Oxygen tolerance evolves to oxygen  dependence:****  i. aerobic pathways: Sugar+  Oxygen­­­­­­­­­­> respiration CO2 +  H2O + E  ii. 18 times more efficient  b. First eukaryotes= nucleus surrounded by  membrane within cell membrane   i. Advantage= more control over gene  regulation    c. Sexual reproduction­­­> accelerate process  of evolution via increased genetic  variation ( building variation for natural  selection to work on)  2. Two important eukaryotic organelles:  a. Mitochondria   i. found in ALL plant and animal cells,  ALL eukaryotes have mitochondria  ii. function=”factory” for aerobic  metabolism  iii. cellular organelle for respiration*  b. Chloroplasts   i. found ONLY in plant cells  ii. function= site of photosynthesis   c.  Interesting properties of BOTH:  i. Contain own DNA (reproduce on own)  ii. similar structure to certain living  prokaryotes:  1. chloroplasts look like  cyanobacteria   2. mitochondrial look like  bacteria   d. Endosymbiotic** Theory (Lyn Margulis)  Mitochondria and chloroplasts were once  prokaryotes how? ​where did they come from  i. predatory eukaryote eat bacteria  ii. bacteria survives and multiples   iii. evolve symbiotic relationship  iv. same thing happens for evolution of  chloroplast (cant function without  each other)  v. Why symbiotic?  1. Mitochondria produces excess E  available to host cell  2. E source for mitochondria= half  digested sugar molecules in  host  3. chloroplast gains nutrients  from cytoplasm for molecule  building  Chemistry: Part I    Matter= physical material of universe   Energy (E)= capacity to do work   Energy stored in chemical bonds between matter  When you form bonds, you STORE energy (potential E, book held above  head), Break bonds­­­> release energy   Energy types:**  1. Potential E=​  ​stored E  2. Kinetic E​ ​ E of movement   i. heat  ii. electrical E  iii. movement of objects   Structure of Matter   ● Element (​atoms)​ ​= substance with specific properties   a. cannot​ be broken down into simpler substances   b. cannot​ be converted into another element   ● Compound (m​ olecule)​ ​= substance composed of two or more  elements; ​can​ be broken down into simpler substances     1. Atomic Structure**  ● if i know the # of protons, then I know the # of electrons b/c  elements on the periodic table are neutral   ● you find electrons on orbitals, shells hold orbitals   ● each row on the periodic table represents the outermost shell  ● max # of electrons in any orbital= 2, max # in a shell, depends  on the # of orbitals  ● ONLY last column on the right on the periodic table have full  outermost shell, only elements that don’t react or form bonds  ○ the nucleus wants to look out and see a full shell   ○ positive ions lose electrons (left) , negative ions gain  (right)  a. atoms=​ smallest unit of an element; consists of subatomic  particles   i. Nucleus ​ (innermost region w/ 2 LARGE particles)  1. # of ​protons​(pos charge)= ​atomic number​ (defines  element, if you change protons you CHANGE the  name of the element)  2. # ​neutrons​(no charge), if vary (if you change  the # of neutrons)­­­> ​isotopes​ of the element   protons + neutrons= atomic weight    ii. Electron orbitals​ = electrons found with high  probability at certain at ​certain distances from  nucleus   1. number of orbitals varies depending on shell  a. closest shell= one orbital (2 electrons)  b. second shell= four orbitals (8 electrons)  i. farther the shell→ higher the energy  level  1. electron pushed to higher shell  gains energy (potential E)  2. electron that drops to lower  shell loses energy (kinetic E)  2. Atomic Reactivity (determined by the electron  configuration in the outermost shell)  a. greater stability= less reactivity   b. orbitals completely occupied­­­> high  stability   i. helium (2 electrons) vs hydrogen (1  electron)  Molecular Structure     A. Ionic bonds​(electrostatic interaction) =one atom “donates”  electrons to another atom/lose or gain electrons­­­> resulting  opposite charge attracts​ atoms  B. Covalent bonds​= atoms “share” electrons by overlapping half  filled orbitals  a. low E molecule; stable; ie: CO2, H2O)  b. high E molecule; unstable; ie: gasoline,O2  c. number of bonds between atoms vary; single, double, or  triple   C. Polar covalent bonds  a. non polar= electrons evenly dispersed around the molecule  (very nicely shared, EX:carbon and hydrogen vs oxygen and  hydrogen)  b. polar= electrons more at one “end” than the other­­­>  partial positive and partial negative charges(water)  i. like mixes with like** ( oil, non  polar and water, polar)  1. if glucose is soluble in water  than it is polar, if something  DOES NOT go into water is non  polar**  c. Hydrogen bonds   i. hydrogen from water molecules forms weak bond with  oxygen from other water molecule­­­> lattice  formation   1. you can overfill water in a glass because of  hydrogen bonds**  Inorganic Molecules   A. organic= has both carbon and hydrogen in its structure  B. inorganic= do not contain both   a. water­ most important inorganic molecule   i. why?   1. water as the universal solvent (for other polar  or ionic compounds)**  2. water as reactant in biochemical reactions  (making/breaking bonds: mono to poly, add  water/poly to mono, loose water)  3. ionization of water   a. H2O­­­> H+ + OH­  4. Water as temperature moderator   a. high specific heat   b. high heat of vaporization  c. high heat of fusion  i. takes a lot of calories to break  hydrogen bonds  5. water as a solid   a. less dense than as a liquid, solid  water(ice) becomes less dense   6. high cohesion  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.