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Week One Notes

by: Allison Nguyen

Week One Notes BIOL 1110 001

Allison Nguyen
University of Memphis
GPA 3.92
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Includes: - Evolution - Biology : Science of Life - Taxonomy
General Biology I
Class Notes
General Biology I




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Nguyen on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 001 at University of Memphis taught by Taller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at University of Memphis.


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Date Created: 02/16/16
Allison Nguyen University of Memphis BIOL 1110 Taller Week 1 Notes 1.2­1.5; 22.5.1­22.5.3 ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Biology: Science of Life ­ 3 common properties in living and nonliving things: complexity, movement, and response ­ there are 5 more properties but these are fundamental in living things only FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF LIVING THINGS ­ cellular organization: containing one or more cells ­ cells are able to grow and reproduce ­ about 10 trillion to 100 trillion cells inside the human body ­ energy utilization: use of energy in living things ­ everything requires energy ­ plants and algae use photosynthesis to convert light into energy   we eat plants that have that energy or  animals that get that energy from plants (chain of events) ­ homeostasis: process to maintain constant internal conditions ­ through this process, human bodies act to maintain internal temperatures ­ growth, development, and reproduction ­ bacteria increase in size and split ­ complex organisms increase # of cells and develop by producing different kinds of cells ­ heredity: process of characteristics that get passed down from parent to offspring  ­ all organisms posses a genetic system based on the replication and duplication of DNA (deoxyribonucleic  acid) ­ DNA has subunits that are ordered in a specific pattern that determine what the organism will be like ­ organisms evolve in effort to adapt to environments HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION ­ hierarchical: each level builds on the level below it; simple to complex ­ 4 levels of organization: cellular, organismal, populational, and ecosystem ­ Cellular Level ­ atoms: fundamental elements of matter ­ molecules: atoms joined by chemical bonds placed into stable groups ­ macromolecules: large complex molecules ­ organelle: complex biological molecules assembled in tiny structures; cell activities organize here ­ cells: basic units of life ­ Organismal Level ­ tissue: groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit ­ organs: body structures made of tissues; act as structural and functional units ­ organ systems: grouped organs ­ organisms: individual living things that can reproduce, grow, undergo homeostasis; can be virus,  bacterium, protest, fungus, plant, or animal ­ Populational Level ­ population: a group of organisms of the same species living in the same place ­ species: members with similar appearances and able to interbreed ­ biological community: all populations of different species living together in one place ­ Ecosystem Level ­ ecosystem: major interactive system that includes  organisms and their nonliving environments ­ biosphere: global ecosystem = entire planet 1 Allison Nguyen University of Memphis BIOL 1110 Taller EMERGENT PROPERTIES ­ novel properties (emergent properties): properties that weren’t present in simpler levels or organizations ­ emergent properties come from the way components interact together; cannot be guessed by just looking at the  parts ­ natural consequences of the hierarchy or structural organization ­ example  two proteins have the same number of amino acids but differ in function; the function is the  emergent property that depends on the sequence of amino acids ­ functional properties: come from more complex organization ­ example  metabolism and consciousness ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Observation and Reasoning SCIENTIFIC PROCESS: DESCRIPTION AND 2 TYPES OF REASONING ­ descriptive science: to be able to understand, you have to be able to describe it ­ classification and descriptions of things are the beginnings of  a greater understanding of said things ­ example  human genome: the gathering and effort to complete the sequence will eventually lead to a  better understanding of humans molecular biology ­ two ways to get to a logical conclusion: deductive and inductive ­ deductive reasoning: general to specifics ­ reasoning of mathematics and philosophy ­ used to test validity of general ideas ­ example  biologists use deductive reasoning to infer specie of a specimen from its characteristics ­ characteristics (general) to get species (specific) ­ inductive reasoning: specifics to general ­ use trends to generalize to predict the future ­ example  poodles have hair and terriers have hair (specific) , then all dogs have hair (general) HYPOTHESIS­DRIVEN SCIENCE ­ hypothesis: suggested explanation that accounts for observations made ­ might be true ­ if it is not yet disproved it can be retained ­ fits facts but are subject to future rejections if new info finds it incorrect ­ can be iterative which means it can be changed and refines with new data ­ observations  questions multiple potential hypotheses  experiment to reject any hypothesis  narrowed down  list of hypotheses  repeats experiments to narrow down possible hypotheses  predictions made  multiple  experiments to conform predictions  confirmed or rejected? ­ experiments: testing hypotheses ­  progress is to eliminate one or more hypotheses ­ experiments do not prove that other hypotheses are true in comparison to the rejected one; only the one  that was tested is rejected ­ successful experiments eliminate several hypotheses ­ scientists establish controls by the use of variables (factors that influence experiments, observations, and  outcomes)  ­ to test a hypothesis and it’s variable, all other variables have to be the same or constant ­ test experiment: one variable is altered in a way to test a particular hypothesis ­ control experiment: the variable is left unaltered ­ besides the particular variable, everything else in the experiments are identical THEORIES 2 Allison Nguyen University of Memphis BIOL 1110 Taller ­ reductionism: a method to study a complex system ­ it requires the system to be broken down to its individual parts ­ each part is examined and studied ­ limits of reductionism ­ emergent properties make it hard to use this method with living things ­ biological models can:  ­ provide a way to organize how we think about a problem  ­ get us closer to the bigger picture ­ scientific theories  two meanings st ­ 1ndmeaning: (deductive) a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon based on general principles ­ 2  meaning: (inductive) supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence that explains the  facts in some area of study ­ theory: an accepted general principle or body of knowledge ­ “scientific method” is a past way to get scientific answers ­ “imaginative preconception” = insight and imagination play a big role in scientific progress ­ peer review is used for careful evaluation from other scientists ­ also provides starting point for testing if it can be reproduced; if it cant be reproduced it will be short lived ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Evolution IDEAS BEFORE DARWIN ­ Linnaeus  the creator made specific and unchangeable species ­ he established the system that would lead to the naming od organisms ­ fossil animals and plants triggered discussions of evolution ­ Buffon  natural relationships between certain kinds of organisms due to common features ­ Lamarck  proposed evolution as a theory to account for the patterns observed in nature ­ species were descended from ancestors ­ theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics: incorrect idea that organs and structures become stronger through use and the strengthened characteristic was passed on to the offspring ­ natural selection: Darwin’s coherent, logical explanation of evolution  THE  BEAGLE ­ five year navigational mapping expedition ­ geographical patterns showed gradual changes as species migrated ­ Galapagos Islands  14 different species of finches ­ common ancestors but had different eating habits that changed the structures ­ “descents with modification” (evolution) NATURAL SELECTION ­ natural selection : the mechanisms for descent with modification  the unique contribution of Darwin and Wallace ­ Darwin and Malthus  essay about populations of plants and animals increasing geometrically while food supply  increased arithmetically  ­ population multiplies ­ food supplies add up ­ death limits population number so the number stays constant ­ Darwin says every organism can reproduce more than can survive; so only a limited number survive and reproduce ­ individuals with attributes that give them advantages in their environments are more likely to survival; to survive  means to pass on the favorable traits to the offspring 3 Allison Nguyen University of Memphis BIOL 1110 Taller ­ frequency of the characteristic increasing in population means the nature of population will gradually change as a  whole (adaptions) ­ artificial selection: animal breeders select certain varieties of species to produce certain characteristics ­ natural selection: nature “forces” certain traits that organisms must have to survive due to its environment ­ Wallace’s essay to Darwin introduced the hypothesis of evolution by the means of natural selection (he  independently proposed this hypothesis without Darwin) TESTED DARWIN PREDICTIONS ­ the fossil record shows the history of life on earth to be about 3.5BYA ­ shows intermediate links between groups of organisms ­ can tell approximately when evolution occurred ­ comparative anatomy is strong evidence ­ homologous: same evolutionary origin, but different structure and function ex. limbs of human, cat, bat, porpoise ­ analogous: similar functions but different evolution origin ex. wings of butterflies and birds ­ molecular evidence shows evolutionary patterns through comparison of genomes ­ vertebrate observations ­ protein level comparisons  ­ phylogenetic tree: pattern of descent that represents evolutionary history of genes (“family trees”) ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Core of Biology  7 THEMES UNIFYING BIOLOGY 1. cell theory describes organization of living systems ­ Hooke use one of the first microscopes 30x ­ Leeuwnhoek  used microscope capable of 300x and discovered single­celled life in pond water ­ Schleiden and Schwann  cell theory ­ all living organisms consist of cells ­ all cells come from preexisting cells ­ basic idea to understanding the reproduction and growth of all organisms 2. molecular basis of inheritance explains continuity of life ­ DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid are long, cable­like molecules with info that specifies what a cell is like ­ built by two nucleotides (chains of amino acids) wounded ­ there are 4 nucleotides ­ genes: specific sequences of nucleotides with specific info ­ geome: the entire set of DNA instructions that specifies a cell 3. relationship between structure and function underlies living systems ­ function depends on structure; vice versa 4. diversity arises by evolutionary change ­ underlying unity of biochemistry and genetics argue that all life evolved from the same origin ­ evolutionary change is supported by fossil records 5. evolutionary conservation explains the unity of living systems ­ some characteristics are conserved in a long line of descent example  Development of eukaryotes 4 Allison Nguyen University of Memphis BIOL 1110 Taller 6. cells are info­processing systems ­ info stored in DNA is used to direct synthesis of cellular components ­ process info from environment example  cell receptors and signal transduction on the membrane ­ cells can sense and respond example  homeostasis 7. living systems exist in a nonequilibrium state ­ energy from food from the sun ­ not thermodynamic equilibrium ­ nonequilibrium system exhibits the property of self­organization ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Largest Taxons = Domains SIX KINGDOMS ­ in the earliest classification system there was only two kingdoms: animals and plant ­ six kingdoms proposed by Carl Woese ­ Bacteria ­ Plantae ­ Archaea ­ Fungi ­ Protista ­ Anamalia THREE DOMAINS ­ six kingdoms aren’t necessarily monophyletic ­ four of the six kingdoms have eukaryotic organisms ­ Animalia and Plantae have only organisms that are multicellular ­ Fungi kingdom has multicellular forms and single­celled yeasts ­ differences that divide the three kingdoms: ­ plants are mainly stationary, some have motile sperm ­ most fungi lack motile cells ­ animals are mainly motile or mobile ­ animals ingest their food ­ plants manufacture it ­ fungi digest and absorb it ­ Protista: eukaryotes that don’t fit in any of the other kingdoms ­ most are unicellular or have unicellular phases ­ paraphyletic group that contains several nomonophyletic adaptive lineages with distinct evolutionary  origins ­ Archaea and Bacteria have prokaryotic organisms ­ Archaea include methanogens and extreme thermophiles ­ three domains are probably monophyletic ­ Archaea, although a prokaryote, is very different from Bacteria after comparing their full genome DNA sequence ­ domains: a taxonomic level higher than a kingdom ­ Domain Archaea: contains Archaea and a diverse group of unicellular prokaryotes ­ Domain Bacteria: contains bacteria and a vast group of unicellular prokaryotes ­ Domain Eukarya: contains fungi, protists, plantae, and animalia ­ each domain forms a clade BACTERIA ­ most abundant 5 Allison Nguyen University of Memphis BIOL 1110 Taller ­ too tiny to see ­ plays critical role in biosphere ­ examples  some extract nitrogen from the air; some play roles in the cycling of carbon and sulfur ­ a lot of photosynthesis is carried out by bacteria ­ responsible for many diseases ­ highly diverse ARCHAEA ­ horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microorganisms means they swap genetic info  ­ this makes constructing phylogenetic trees for microorganisms difficult ­ Archaean characteristics ­ all have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan like eukaryotes (this is an important component of the cell  walls of bacteria)  ­ lipids in cell membranes have different structures from other organisms ­ they have distinctive rRNA sequences ­ some of the genes posses introns, unlike bacteria ­ three groups of Archaea based on environments or metabolic pathways  ­ methanogens: obtain energy by using hydrogen gas to reduce carbon dioxide to methane gas ­ strict anaerobes (poisoned by even traces of oxygen) ­ swamps, marshes, and intestines of animals ­ release methane gas into atmosphere ­ extremophiles: able to grow under condition that are extreme to us  ­ temperature, pH, and pressure extremes ­ cold­adapted Archaea and thermophiles in hot springs ­ halophiles live in salty environments ­ nonextreme Archaea: grow in the same environment as bacteria   6


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