BIO 1004, Chapter 6 Notes
BIO 1004, Chapter 6 Notes BIO 1004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Chapter 6 Skeletal System Bones to know: metacarpals, carpals, radius, ulna (under radius,) humerus, ribs, sternum, vertebra, ilium, femur patella, fibula, tibia, tarsels, metatarsels, clavicle, skull Function of the bones: o Supports and protects body and organs o Produces blood cells and stores mineral salts o Space for muscles to attach Anatomy of a long bone: o The periosteum is the outer covering of a bone that is made up of connective tissue, does not contain calcium. o The Epiphysis are the rounded ends of the long bones that contains the red marrow and spongy bone. Red marrow produces red and white blood cells. Made by: skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebrae Spongy bone is the strongest type of bone made up of bars and plates. o The diaphysis is the central portion of the bone that is made up of compact bone and contains the medullary cavity. Compact bone is made up of a system of Haversian canals and contains osteocytes and lacunae. Haversian canals are concentric circles of bony material with blood vessels within the core. Osteocytes are bone cells. Lacunae are chambers containing bone cells The Medullary cavity is found in the diaphysis and contains blood vessels and yellow marrow. Yellow marrow stores fat. Growth and Development o In the womb, babies’ bones are made up of prenatal cartilage, which slowly forms into bone through deposition of mineral salts. This process is called Endochondral Ossification. Intramembranous ossification – no previous model, bones of the face During endochondral ossification, the model develops 2 growth plates at the bone’s center and move towards opposite ends of the bones during development. The growth plate starts in the diaphysis and moves out towards the epiphysis. Around our mid 20’s, our growth plates will fuse together and stop growing. Growth plates can speed up if weight bearing exercises are introduced before puberty. The bone will not reach full length. o Our bones are continuously broken down and rebuilt throughout our life. Osteoclasts are cells that break down bone and release calcium into the blood. Calcium is needed to conduct impulses and produce muscle contractions. Osteoblasts repair the damage done by osteoclasts and remove the calcium from the blood. Osteocytes are mature osteoblasts that are trapped in the matrix of the bone. Vertebrae o 4 different types of vertebrae: Cervical vertebrae provide rotational movement of the skull and are found at the base of the neck. There are 7 cervical vertebrae. There are 12 thoracic vertebrae that from the curve of your spine between your shoulder blades and further down. There are 5 lumbar vertebrae that make up the small of your back. There are 5 sacral vertebrae that are fused together. Then you have the coccyx. o The spinal cord follows the outside of the vertebrae and is protected by the neural arches that are attached to the vertebrae. o Slightly moveable joints join together the vertebrae and are separated by intervertebral discs made up of connective tissue. o Vertebrae serve as a point of attachment for the ribs. Ribs o There are two types of ribs: True ribs are directly connected to the sternum. False ribs are indirectly connected to the sternum. Floating ribs o The xiphoid process is the tip of the sternum which is easily broken during chest compressions and can puncture the lungs if broken. It becomes brittle in the elderly. Skeleton o The Axial skeleton contains the skull, ribs, and vertebrae. o The appendicular skeleton contains all of the other bones. Fractures o Types of Fractures A simple fracture is a clean break that does not puncture the skin. A compound fracture has ragged edges and can puncture the skin. The bone is often exposed to infection and outside pathogens. Fractures that can be classified as simple or compound: A partial fracture happens when the bone breaks lengthwise, but is not separated. A greenstick fracture involves splintering of the bone and is most commonly seen in children. An impacted fracture happens when the two ends of a break are compacted together, crushing the heads. A comminuted fracture is a bone that is broken into several pieces. A spiral fracture is a twisted break that usually results in sharp edges. o Repair A hematoma is a blood clot where the break occurs, or a bruise. A fibrocartilage callous is a mass of cartilage that forms around the edges of a fracture. A bony callous occurs when calcium enters and the bone structure begins to reform. When the bone goes through remodeling, it rebuild the medullary cavity. (osteoclasts) Joints o There are 3 types of joints: A fixed or unmovable joint is an area where at least two bones meet and the joint is not flexible. Ex: sternum, pelvis, cranial, sacrum A slightly movable joint is an area where at least two bones meet and the joint has a small amount of flexibility. A freely movable joint is an area where at least two bones meet that has a high degree of flexibility and motion. Synovial joints have a synovial capsule and synovial fluid. o Types: Ball and socket: shoulders and hips, rotational movement Pivot joint: elbows and knees, provides movement in one direction Saddle joints: wrists and ankles, provides some rotational movement o The synovial cavity o A synovial joint has A synovial capsule that is made up of a water-tight membrane that is surrounded by ligaments. Synovial fluid is a viscus, thick fluid that lubricates the ends of our bones and prevents the edges from rubbing together. It also prevents the cavity from collapsing or being compressed.
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