Discussion answer for topic 6
Discussion answer for topic 6 SOC 151
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Don Jon on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 151 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Waldinger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Comparative Immigration in Sociology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
According to FitzGerald and CookMartin henceforth FCM when did the horizontal plane matter more than the vertical plane At times of sustained expansion of US military commercial and diplomatic power Strong crossclass coalitions could overcome foreign policy concerns to exclude immigrants from Asia with which the US had relatively limited ties at the turn of the 20th century In the 1920s the coalition could restrict immigrants from Europe where the US was disengaging Restrictionists were not about to limit Latin America because of the deep US engagement in the region What factors guided immigration and nationality policy during the colonial period Security interests The Britain s colonies were sandwiched between Catholic French and Spanish rivals The colonies charged head taxes on immigrating Catholics and offered positive inducements only to Protestants Some colonies banned Catholic immigration outright Some discriminated by assessing special taxes on immigrants Fearing that blacks would threaten whites if their percentage of the population grew too high tax the save trade to subsidize white immigration Fearing of the larger population would be tempted to secede and compete economically with Britain What accounts for the relative openness of early US citizenship policy making all whites eligible but also its restrictive aspect The 1790 Uniform Rule of Naturalization the colonists interests in increasing their population to achieve military security economic growth as well as recognizing the crucial military assistance Opening to all whites allowed for the demographic and military expansion of a country with a tenuous toehold on a continent populated by rivals powers and indigenous groups Why did the advent of Chinese immigrant generate such fierce opposition Business interests just wanted a reserve labor army of cheap Chinese labor but Chinese neighbors or fellow citizens For intellectuals the supposed servility of Chinese evidenced by their willingness to accept low wages was an indicator that they were unfit for citizenship Why did proponents of Chinese exclusion succeed in the late 19th century In 1855 the state assembly imposed a head tax for arriving ship passengers who were not eligible for citizenship The assembly went on to pass a Chinese Exclusion Law preventing admissions of Chinese or Mongolians A new state constitution in 1879 banned government and businesses from hiring Chinese delegated to cities and towns the authority to segregate Chinese and urged an end to further Chinese immigration In 1891 the state assembly passed a racialized ban on all Chinese immigration regardless of the applicant s nationality San Francisco passed an ordinance that confine Chinese residences and businesses to a segregated slum Which groups opposed Chinese exclusion How does this opposition illuminate the pattern of strange bedfellow coalitions Chinese immigrants sought relief from the courts In most cases Chinese already in the US and certainly those born in the US over time gained equal protection under 10 11 the law Most racial discrimination within US territory was rendered illegitimate long before racial discrimination at the border How did the controversy over Chinese exclusion demonstrate the importance of horizontal versus vertical factors When immigration became linked to deeper military and diplomatic interests that exclusion was overturned When the US needed China in its existential fight against the Axis in WW2 the vertical interests demanding restriction yielded to the horizontal exigencies of foreign policy West Coast businesses and the US government saw advantages in closer relations with China including access to cheap labor The executive branch and exportoriented US businesses feared that Chinese exclusion was harming the SinoUS relationship How and why did the experience of Japanese exclusion contrast with that of Chinese exclusion How did this controversy demonstrate the importance of horizontal versus vertical factors Because Japan was a much stronger power than China US restriction against Japanese were less harsh constructed from the outset through bilateral agreements and later disguised in facially neutral terms It was not until WW2 when China became an allied friend and Japan an Axis enemy US treatment reversed President Roosevelt issued a proclamation in March 14 1907 that banned Japanese or Korean laborers from entering through Mexico Canada or Hawaii There was never a formal treaty based on the Gentlemen s Agreement and Congress did not ratify its term The presidency used its executive powers to respond to vertical demands in a way that would minimize damage on the horizontal field Why did the US not select Europeans on the basis of ethnicity during the 19th century despite opposition to European immigration Why did forces from the horizontal dimension not prevent the restriction of European immigration The edging republic wanted to build up its population to survive attacks from European competitors and expand west It was not until the republic had become firmly established that policymakers had the luxury of restricting particular groups of Europeans Intellectuals in Europe and European settler societies circulated scientific papers and popularized works warning of the perils of race mixing Discussion centered on how much the mixing of different European groups threatened national demographic health Although European immigration was restricted in 1924 no such obstacles were put in the way of immigration from Mexico and elsewhere in the western hemisphere How do FCM explain this disparity How does their explanation differ from Tichenor s
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