PSYS 100 Week 6 Lecture Notes
PSYS 100 Week 6 Lecture Notes Psys 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
02/17/2016 ▯ ▯ REMINDER: ▯ Essay Test 1: In-Class 2/18 ▯ Multiple Choice Test 1: In-Lab 2/18 @ noon – 2/23 @ 2pm ▯ Sensation and Perception Cont. ▯ Color Blindness: inability to discriminate among wavelengths ▯ It is rare to find people who are truly and totally color blind (called monochromats) These people have only rods in their retinas (less than 1% of people) ▯ Most “color blind” people are just deficient (called anomalous trichromats) 13 Million Americans are anomalous trichromats o 6% of men and .5% of women One common type is called a “dichromat” o Can distinguish between only two of the three cone hues o So they can tell… Blues from reds and blues from greens but NOT reds from greens (most common) o Data suggests that dichromats are missing the cones of one color and one of the other two colors are duplicated o Should have Reds Greens Blues o Actually have Reds Reds Blues So red cones fire when the person sees red or green and therefore can’t tell the difference between red and green o Reds are duplicated: for colorblind people, reds fire when seeing red and reds fire when seeing green o Color blindness is a “gender-linked trait” It is transmitted genetically through the female who is, in turn, unlikely to be afflicted by it. Hemophilia and muscular dystrophy are also due to gender-linked traits ▯ Form Perception There are two important factors in the perception of form o Size constancy- the ability to recognize that an object remains constant in size regardless of a) distance from us or b) the size of the image on our retinas. ▯ Three variables determine your ability to maintain size constancy: Past experience with the actual size of an object Knowledge of the object’s distance from you Cues from the surrounding environment ▯ Size constancy is not innate (we’re not born with it) ▯ It must be learned through experience! ▯ ▯ Shape Constancy The ability to recognize that an object’s shape remains constant regardless of changer in our viewing orientation or angle We are not born with shape constancy either! It must be learned through experience ▯ Depth Perception To perceive depth, we use two types of cues o Monocular cues: cues that allow depth perception with a single eye Often used by painters to give the illusion of depth o Binocular cues: cues that require two eyes for the perception of depth 9 Common Monocular Cues o Relative size: smaller objects appear farther away o Texture gradients: less detailed objects appear farther away o Relative Height: objects higher in our plane of vision appear father away o Linear Perspective: when parallel lines of objects converge, we perceive distance o Relative Brightness: Brighter objects appear closer o Interposition: when one object blocks out another, that object appears closer. o Relative Motion: a little different from other cues. Not used by artists to depict depth but is a monocular cue Only available when an observer is in motion When a moving observer (maybe in a car) states at a fixed point Object behind the point move with the observer Objects in front of the point more backwards (in opposite direction) o Wavelengths themselves Mountains generally look blue from far away (also, the ocean) This is because the longer red and green wavelengths scatter easily as they travel through the air While the shorter (and stronger) blue waves make it to the retina Also, if you look at the ocean from an airplane it will look like a deep dark blue So, hue helps us determine depth! o Accommodation: Muscles of the eye automatically send depth info to the brain when one strains to see a distant object 2 Binocular Cues o Retinal Disparity: the slight difference in the image that is projected on to each retina Occurs because the two eyes are separated by the bulge of the nose So each eye gets a slightly different view of the world Viewmasters take this to the extreme (toys where you look in and each eye sees something different but together they make one picture) o Convergence: as an object moves closer to a person, the viewer’s eyes move toward each other (the eyes converge or “cross”) As this happens, information about depth is automatically sent to the brain ▯ ▯ Demonstrations: ▯ 1. opponent process theory (staring at X in white box surrounded by black box then looking at the blank page) ▯ 2. size constancy (staring at X in white box surrounded by black box then looking at the board) ▯ 3. binocular vision (rolled paper and look through tube with hand up – looks like the tube is going through your hand) ▯ 4, retinal display(reading ABCDEF then 10 11 12 13 14 – B and 13 were the same but read them within in context) ▯ ▯
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