Week 2 Philosophy 101
Cal State Fullerton
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Mutlu on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Ryan Nichols in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Purpose meaning the goodlife in PHIL-Philosophy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Philosophy 101 Ryan Nichols February 2nd Plato Back round on Plato - A young aristocrat in Ancient Greece (427-327 B.C.E) • Follower of Socrates - Writes the Republic • One of his longest works - Focuses on the question “What is justice?” In Ancient Greece it’s economical foundation relied on agriculture. Meaning it was very ﬂat and much labor was needed. People tended not to develop a group based way of thinking. You need lots of area to farm and this put people very far from one another. A police state. Ecology of Morality Agriculture: Collectivist, suppressing individual representation Herding and sea: Individualistic - Plato's Republic an analogy working part-person - Interworking parts • conﬂict - city-soul - Polus - Ring of Gyges: a challenge of self interest - The wearer of this ring turns invisible • (LOTR) The ring (My precious) - Human nature vs. Social control • Glaucon and Thrasymachus • Believed that morality is nothing more than the taming of ones self interest because of others - “Morality” is Hypocrisy - Motivation comes from within - pg.11 “To do injustice is naturally good” - It is always within your self interest to violate others self interest • Egoism: Actions are motivated by our self interest - “Desire to outdo others and get more and more” • There’s a conﬂict between self interest and society viewing you making you tame it - Self interest is unleashed once the ring is worn - S: Being Just is needed for the good life - (Just-treating fairness with respect) - G: “Justice” is a sham (Blue Book: What would you do if after this class, you ﬁnd the ring?) - Justice relating to the soul • There are three parts of the soul - Appetitive The pleasure seeking part of the soul - • Spirited • Emotive part, gets angered when perceives injustices - Rational • Logical part, seeking truth The soul is in harmony once justice is done and it is thrown into disharmony when injustice is done. Role of moral emotions: guilt - Socrates has a high bar for morality • The just life is the best possible life and anything below is below it Why be moral? - Because you are constrained by self interest • Confucianism: A self interested reason not to be self interested Why is it in my self interest to not be self interested? Benevolence- like the three parts of a musical scale- a key feature in justice- rule of self- it is proﬁtable to be just- though there is no way to measure this proﬁt- if one has everything-it’s not worth living when theres no where to live Being free from desires (Blue Book: What part of you is not in Socratic Harmony?) February 4th Role of habitual practice Sensuality 8 fold path (pg.74) Suffering-view of words-human nature- “cravings” - A freedom from desire • Soul: A part of someones body not made of matter Egoism- Psi- Morally motivated Phi- Self interest is morally permissible, for Glaucoma psychological egoism is true, we are all motivated by self - Most deeds are done in hopes of reciprocating • Reciprocity: Referring to you doing good deeds for some hoping that they will do something good for you - Some motivations being conscious and some being subconscious • Is anyone genuinely self sacriﬁcial? - Most are morally motivated to avoid bad feelings and revel in the good - Grenades: a truly selﬂess act to throw yourself onto a grenade saving everyone else, a violation of Glaucon’s theory - Lake woebegone fallacy- where all the children are above average • Self deception- or evolutionary adaptation - Pg.6 What is the origin of suffering? - Egoism- self interest - Desire/Gratiﬁcations: “now here” short term - Referred to in metaphors relating to thirst - Most theories say that we are acting out of self intrest because it is in our nature • But can we change that? - If you cannot overcome your short term desires - Water- A fundamental need • Lacking water was the worst back in the day - Today there’s water everywhere - We are very disconnected from nature - The goal is to reduce suffering- role of habitual practice
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