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Entomology 313 Week 2 Notes

by: Jeffrey Lynes

Entomology 313 Week 2 Notes Entomology 313

Jeffrey Lynes
Penn State

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These are the notes from lecture 3 and the lab 2 lecture. Due to MLK Jr. day, there were only two lectures during this week.
Introduction to Entomology
Dr. Michael Saunders
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeffrey Lynes on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Entomology 313 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Michael Saunders in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Entomology in Entomology at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 02/16/16
Entomology 313 1/20/16 Lecture 3 Metamorphosis  Why are insects small? o Surface area/volume ratio  Water loss  Exoskeleton is solution to above problem  Features of exoskeleton o Epidermis: living layer, made of cells o Endocuticle: made of proteins and chitin o Exocuticle: Crosslinked (more rigid) proteins and chitin o Epicuticle: thinnest layer; wax layer waterproofs it  Functions of exoskeleton o Skeletal system o Protects insect o Conserves water o Sensory reception o Locomotion o Respiration o Excretion  To grow, insects molt o Brain releases hormone that travels to prothoracic gland o Prothoracic gland releases steroid hormone called Ecdysone o Apolysis: old cuticle separates from epidermis o Ecdysis: old cuticle cracks along special lines  Insect crawls out of old cuticle  Insect expands soft new cuticle  Soft new cuticle hardens  Types of metamorphosis o No metamorphosis: Immature (nymph) and adult look same (Ex. Thysanura - silverfish) o Gradual metamorphosis: nymphs and adults differ but aren’t completely different (Ex. Blattodea - roaches) o Complete metamorphosis: most advanced, immature (larva) looks completely different from adult (Ex. Lepidoptera - butterflies)  Ecdysone increases right before molting  Juvenile hormone determines if insect remains an immature or molts into an adult Entomology 313 1/22/16 Lab 2 Lecture Internal Anatomy  Foregut: food storage and initial digestion o Pharynx: ingestion of food and passage backwards o Esophagus: food passage o Crop: food storage o Proventriculus: has “teeth” for grinding food to aid in digestion  Midgut: food digestion and absorption of nutrients o Gastric caecae: contain symbiotic microorganisms to aid in digestion o Ventriculus: tube-shaped section of midgut; absorption of food, production and secretion of enzymes  Hindgut: water and small molecule reabsorption o Pylorus: where Malpighian tubules are attached  Malpighian tubules: equivalent to mammalian kidneys; regulates ion and water balance o Ileum: contains symbiotic microorganisms that provide vitamins and micronutrients o Rectum: reabsorption of water before waste leaves body  Excretory system o Ileum o Rectum o Colon: portion of hindgut between ileum and rectum  Insects have an open circulatory system o Hemocoel: body cavity that contains internal organs o Hemolymph: insect blood; carries nutrients and hormones throughout body (not oxygen though) o Haemocyte: blood cell of invertebrate animals o Dorsal vessel: the only blood vessel in insects; runs from head to abdomen  Respiratory system o Spiracles: openings in the tracheal system o Trachea: Transports gases into and out of body through spiracles  Nervous system o Ganglion: hundreds of nerve cells fused together o Brain: fusion of ganglia that controls motor function and receives sensory information o Ventral nerve cord: pair of nerves and their ganglia  Endocrine system o Neurosecretory cells: produce most known hormones o Corpora cardiac: store and release prothoracicotrophic hormone o Prothoracic gland: Secrete ecdysone  Reproductive system o Female  Ovaries: produce eggs  Oocytes: eggs  Lateral oviduct  Gonopore  Genital Chambers  Spermatheca o Male  Testes: produce sperm  Sperm duct or vas deferens  Sperm storage organ or seminal vesicle  Ejaculatory duct


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