BIOL 5600 Notes 1-27-16
BIOL 5600 Notes 1-27-16 BIOL 5600
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaurenC on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 5600 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Mendonća in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Biomedical physiology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
BIOL 5600 1-27-16 Recap: -Relative refractory period -Absolute refractory period >Based on charge >Important to understand why axon signals go one direction >Polarizing and depolarizing sequential parts of the membrane Now going back to the end of Chapter two: -Pharmacology -How to engender an action potential: 1) Normal chemical stimulation -Generate EPSP/IPSP -Having the right neurotransmitters in the right amounts 2) Mechanical stimulation -External, unnatural method -Disrupts integrity of membrane 3) Electrical stimulation -You administer electrical pulse -Response: No more change once the highest voltage is achieved -The on that could have most effect on the ability to generate an action potential is K+ >The relative concentration of K+ inside verses outside the cell is important >If you have high extracellular K+ than normal, it’s called Hyperkalemia -Low intracellular K+ >If you have less extracellular K+ than normal, it’s called Hypokalemia -High intracellular K+ *Another important ion is Ca2+ -If you have higher than normal extracellular Ca2+ levels, it decreases the excitability of the cell -It doesn’t alter the resting MP or threshold potential; it makes it harder to engender an action potential -Too much extracellular Ca2+ obstructs Na+ cells > Called Hypercalcaemia >Na+ cannot enter when channels open > Hypocalcaemia (not enough extracellular Ca2+) has no effect Local anesthetics Ex. Lidocane -Interfering -Antagonists of VR Na+ channels >An antagonist is a drug that ports normal scion (sometimes enhances) More effective Ex. Tertrodotoxin (TTX) -PSP -Responsive for paralytic shellfish poisoning -VR Na+ channel blocked *Be prepared for many drug/affect questions on Test 1 Ex. of agonist: Dendrotoxin -From venom of mamba snake -Binds to VR K+ channels and blocks them which means K+ cannot exit and there is no repolarization -Agonistic effect on muscle contraction -Causes convulsions, heart attacks, and cardiac arrest (End of chapter 2 material) Chapter 3 material: Muscle tissue: -Excitable >VR channels >CR channels >Movement of ions >Membrane permeability -Characteristics of: 1) Excitability -Can receive and respond to stimuli 2) Contractility -Can shorten and thicken (Exert tension) 3) Extensibility -Can stretch 4) Elasticity -Can return to original shape -3 Muscle cell/ fiber types 1) Skeletal -Muscles that you can voluntarily move 2) Cardiac -Myocardium 3) Smooth -Organs
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