Psych 110 Homework Notes
Psych 110 Homework Notes PSYC 110 - 008
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Briel on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Summary of Homework Reading Assignment: Pages 217-235 Due Wednesday February 17, 2016 Schedule of Reinforcement-pattern of reinforcing a behavior -Skinner (1938) found that animals’ behaviors differ depending on the schedule of reinforcement, that is, the pattern of delivering reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement- reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs resulting in faster learning but faster extinction than only occasional reinforcement Partial Reinforcement- only occasional reinforcement of a behavior; resulting in slower extinction than if the behavior had been reinforced continually The principle reinforcement schedules vary along two dimensions: 1. The consistency of administering reinforcement- some reinforcement contingencies are fixed, whereas others are variable. That is in some case experiments provide reinforcement on a regular (fixed) basis, whereas in others they provide reinforcement on an irregular (variable) basis. 2. The basis of administering reinforcement- Some reinforcement schedules operate on ratio schedules, whereas in others operate on interval schedules. In ration schedules, the experimenter reinforces the animal based on the number of responses it’s emitted. In interval schedules, the experimenter reinforces the animal based on the amount of time elapsed since the last reinforcement. We can combine these 2 dimensions to arrive at 4 major schedules of reinforcement: 1. Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule 2. Fixed Interval (FI) Schedule 3. Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule 4. Variable Interval (VI) Schedule Applications of Operant Conditioning: Shaping by successive approximations- conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target Therapeutic Uses of Operant Conditioning: Secondary Reinforcer- neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforce Primary Reinforcer- item or outcome that naturally increases the target behavior Latent Learning- learning that’s not directly observable Observational Learning: Cognitive Map- mental representation of how a physical space is organized Observational Learning- learning by watching others Mirror Neuron- cell in the prefrontal cortex that becomes activated by specific motions when an animal both performs and observes that action Conditioned Taste Aversions: The sauce béarnaise syndrome, also known as conditioned taste aversion, refers to the fact that classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food. Preparedness- evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of feared stimuli over others owing to their survival Instinctive Drift- tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement Learning Style- an individual’s preferred or optimal method of acquiring new information
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