Week 3 Philosophy 101
Cal State Fullerton
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Mutlu on Tuesday February 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Ryan Nichols in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Purpose meaning the goodlife in PHIL-Philosophy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/16/16
Philosophy 101 Ryan Nichols February 8th Lucretius Back round: A philosopher in Italy (99-55 B.C.E.) A good time to live, a good time to be Roman. - Metaphysics ﬁrst- then ethics • Contrasts w/ plato - Divinity - Teleology (purpose) • “Everything happens for a Reason.” - a teleological view - Epicurean Good life • Ataraxia (Serene, calmness) • Equilibrium and Tranquility - A mental tranquility • Familiar - earlier notes on Daosism & Buddism Origin of Things • • Equanimity - even mindedness • Epictetus: Stoic - Epicurean - Epicure - Cultivating Pleasure - The ﬁrst Philosophy to change the order • Constituents of matter - What matter is made of? - Doesn't believe in a lot of gods • Though rome is polytheistic Uses the parallels of Greek gods to Rome gods • - Socrates: Demigod: small voice in his head helps morals - Lucretius: Tries to prove god doesn't exist - What is the good life without god? - Symmetry Argument • Belief Teleology & Divinity promotes safety and comfort - Afterlife: a continuation - All has purpose - Heaven = Comfort • We don't need to fear death • Lacking fear of death undercuts motives for belief Epicurean: Individuals can make millions and h’d be less happy then someone w/ none. Denmark is happy- coefﬁcient wealth disparity in a country - wealth disparity big difference in America. “Gaze down on this elevation seeing others wandering for a way of life”. Opening lines- “Body free from pain and a mind free of worry” (44) - The good life. Like Daoism he refers to getting rid of the sage. Like buddha- be at peace w/ you w/ the world. Metaphors of safety. Causing most off balance to the equilibrium- the fear of death. “This fear is the fountain head of their troubles.”. Suffering is a part of life- cant get rid of it but you can manage it. Fear of death- makes you believe in god. Because they suffer through chaos they want tranquility. It’s comfort undercutting the fear. There’s no evidence of heaven existing but we need safety. “Death is nothing to us because the nature of the mind is not mortal” (45) Lucretius: An atomist- very unlikely god exists because he is not made of matter- nothing can happen to you after death, 1. My previous non-vital existence was not bad for me 2. My Previous non-vital existence is relevantly similar to my post-vital existence 3. Your post-vital existence will not be bad for you. If you’re nothing than nothing can harm you “The suffering of those cells do not touch us” Non-vital - Before Birth - No recollections - no bad Some people treat death as if god is harming them, and that they are owed an afterlife. An imaginative mistake. If you feel wronged - living a terrible life - death - decreases the pain you’ve lived through. A good life - a good dinner once your time is over why would you complain if you loved it. Page 48 on top, Causes of depression and anxiety- obsessions (crush). Traveling metaphor “Craving” and buddha connection The type of person who always wants to be somewhere else. running to get away from life if you cant have it yo want it more. Criticizes sex, wet dreaming, describing sex and the process of falling in love with some one. The stimulus we want - comes in a human form. “Craving” and buddhism desire. Sex - unattainable - insatiable - can never have enough. “shafts of venus”- Greeks cupid- Rome venus. “Ejaculate the ﬂuid from my body into that body” Purely physical description - a naturalist- yet he criticizes sex. Criticizes the cravings of sex rather than the sex itself. That ceaseless desire, sex and love. Love- you want the other person so bad. by the sane and the love sick. Sex boating the thing you love it will always fall short causing instability. Is it passion? February 11th Nietzsche (BB: One really good question raised in your mind from the reading) - Nietsche • Not “literal” • Ration and arational? • Aphoristic - 108 God is Dead - 125 We killed God - 153 We are Responsible - Good Life • Ancient theories are universalist (all human kind will eventually be saved) • N- individualistic • Ocean Metaphor • 125 - Ethical Project 283 • • “strong” and “weak” • Role of reason and science • Daringly critical • 335 - Eternal Return 341 • • Effects of Gods Death • Darwinism (329) • Social roles and Socialism - “yes” • Exuberant afﬁrmation of Life • Fn’s Story • Contrast: and its virtues - “only as creators can we destroy” Hunting moral value • • value worthless • FN: Fight social norms • Identity “erroneous articles of faith” - Free will - Persistence (after-death) (BB: What’s something you have or currently deceive yourself about) Nietzsche: German. Idiosyncratic. He has a certain hold on certain people. “Because he speaks the truth or tries his best to cut all the bullshit”. Thought he was crazy because of his afﬁnity for beastiality. Suffered through syphilis. To Provoke people into thinking for yourself. Contradicted other forms of philosophy at the time in the fully versed in western traditions and eastern. (British isles seemingly arational.) His technique relies on active reading and aphorisms. Greek word- very short terse statements. (153) we are responsible for the death of god. and the story of the madman. (227) only as creators. “what things are called is more important than what they are” Like endorsing 60$ for a t-shirt. Wearing one changes your behavior and how people perceive your behavior. Like gods, what you call it is more important, the idea changes our behavior more then the thing itself. Because of this we value things that are essentially worthless. Changing values. The ﬁrst step is to destroy then think for yourself. Not for anyone else but you. begin to look at yourself and ﬁnd the differences of appearance and reality. Replacing other values of your own. Appearance vs. Reality. If things are virtually worthless. To ﬁght social norms you use critical thinking. “Erroneous articles of faith”- things we believe without proof. placing value on things which we have faith in. It’s easier to criticize others than yourself. Things we believe believe without proof like Freewill- like to believe in it without it you’d feel like a cog. all the ﬁring in your neurons is predetermined in prior physical states. -where is the evidence? Persistence (after death) source of comfort. Faith in God- biggest article of faith is this faith more appearance? “Medical formula of Morality” Trying to convince us that there is a template for the good life - one of health - to be a virtuous person N: “YOUR soul” - making it speciﬁc to you. There is no one size ﬁts all An individualist: there is no one type of good life. Plato said virtue for all. For certain people there are better types of life “ it all depends on your aim” To avoid being a lemming. “For gods rot too”. (125) The naming of god god ( i exist) western trying to un name him by referring him dead. God is mortal - humanistic- developing a ritual for the death of god. America- biggest route of the good life - the the god life. God provides us w/ the good life. The modern day plato- analog. You can't lead a good life unless you believe in god. Ocean metaphor (125) “philosophers of the day” the cynics you can't reach the good life w/ hate. Saying others cant doesn't make you can. Exuberance for life Goodlife and god does not afﬁrm life. Nietzches life story: the son of a minister self contained from his environment. Lutheran. Wouldn't allow music, no pictures, the word of god and your attention. This is life denying. Christianity- un-life afﬁrming because you live for the afterlife not this one. wasting your time. Nuns and monks are celibate, they’re pro-life but once your alive they don’t care. Sex is evolutionary. Contrast self denial. Christianity evokes self denial. Temperance: virtue of not behaving in ways. “Thou shall not” Jesus is the model- a self denying life. Model for life someone who denies themselves. (229-230) “those who are dissatisﬁed” “strong”- aesthetic- consideration an identity ways with a version of themselves of an actor “you are the protagonist of your life, so act like it” Writing your own script inﬂuenced by other sources “the script of our lives” (BB: Two ways you feel like you do not write your own script and let others write it for you) Writing their own- afﬁrms their own lives models Science “Hooray for physics” (232) Finding errors in faith using scientiﬁcally praising science (335) most become physicist to become creators in this sense. Eternal Return Ground hog day- living life over and over again. hell like. Are you afﬁrming your existence? “that was a great day” are you projecting your happiness someplace else that hasn't happened yet or an after life that you don't even know exists or not. Christians 227 “the will to eternalize” 382 feigning morals. Origin of justice- self interest. Wont suffer the consequences of my own moral impiety. No one would be just willingly if they had the ring. Moral-Self sacriﬁcial
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