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Note for PSYC 2301 with Professor Breitmeyer at UH


Note for PSYC 2301 with Professor Breitmeyer at UH

Marketplace > University of Houston > Note for PSYC 2301 with Professor Breitmeyer at UH

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This 61 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Houston taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
Alternative Explanations Part of causal inference a potential alternative cause of an observeol relationship between variables Covariation OF Cause amp EFFect Part of causal inference observing tnat a cnange in one variable is accompanied by a cnange in a second variable E W0 iViC is wx Use oF objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior Fa siFia bi itg Tne principle tnat a good scientific idea or tneorg snoald be capable of being slnown to be False when tested using scientific Vnetnods Peer Review The process onuoigihg the scientific merit of research through review by other scientists with the expertise to evaiuate the research Program Evaluation Researcn designed to assess procedures eg social reForins innovations tnat are designed to produce certain cnanges or outcomes in a target population Pseudosciemce Claims that are made on the basis of evidence that despite appearances is not based on the principles of the scientific method Temporal Precedence Part of causal inference the cause occurs before the effect H glaotnesis An assertion about wnat is true in a particular situation oFten a statement asserting tnat two or more variables are related to one anotner Prediction An assertion concerning what will occur in a particular researclA investigation Tneo rg A systematic conerent and logical set of ioleas about a particular topic or pnenovnenon tnat serves to organize and explain olata and generate new knowleolge Autonomy Belmont Report Principle that individuals in researcn investigations are capable of making a decision of wnetner to participate Beneficence Belmont Report Principle that research should have beneficial effects while minimizing any harmful effects Debrie 39ng Explanation of the purposes of the research that is given to participants Following their participation in the research Deception MisimFormatiom that a participant receives during a research investigation I nFo rmed Consent In research ethics the principle tnat participants in an experiment be informed in advance of all aspects of tne researcn tnat unignt influence tneir decision to participate Institutional Review Board 1213 An etnicrs review committee establisneol to review researcn proposals Tne RB is composed oF scientists nonscientists anal legal experts Justice Belmont Report Principle that all individuals and groups should have Fair and equal access to the benefits of research participation as well as potential risks of research participation Minimal Risk Research Research in which participants are exposed to risks that are no greater than those encountered in daily liFe or in routine physical or psychological tests Plagiarism Presentation of anotner person s work as your own instead of properly citing tne actual source Risk BeneFit Anal gsis Evaluation of the ethical implications oF a research procedure by considering the bene ts of the research in relation to the potential risks to participants Role Payimg An alternative to deception in which individuals indicate how they or others would respond to an independent variable ConFoanding ariable A variable tnat is not controlled in a researcn investigation In an experiment tne experimental groups differ on boitn tne independent variable and tne confounding variable Construct Validity The degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure Correlation Coefficient An inolex of now strongly two variables are relateol to eacn otner Carvilinear Relationship A relationship in which changes in the values of the First variable are accompanied by both increases anal decreases in the values oF another variable Dependent Variable Tne variable that is tne subject s VeSponse to and dependent on the level of tne manipulated independent variable Experimental Control Eliminating tne influence of an extraneous varialole on tne outcome of an experiment by keeping tne variable constant in tne experimental anal control groups Experimental M etnod A metnod of determining wnetner variables are related in wnicn tne researcner manipulates tne independent variable and controls all otner variables eitner by randomization or by direct experimental control External Validity The degree to which the results of an experiment may be generalized Field Experiment An experiment tnat is conducted in a natural setting ratner tnan in a laboratory setting I nte rnal Val id itg The certainty with which results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than to some other confounding variable Negative Linear Relationship A relationship in which increases in the values of the First variable are accompanied by decreases in the values of the seconal variable Nonexperimental Metnod Use of measurement of variables to determine wnetner variables are related to one anotner Also called correlational metnod Operationai DeFinition Definition of a concept tnat specifies tlAe Vnetnooi used to measure or manipulate tne concept Positive Linear Relationship A relationship in which increases in the values of the First variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the second variable Randomization Controlling For the eFFects 0F extraneous variables by ensuring that tne variables operate in a manner determined entirely by chance Tnirol Variable Problem In descriptions oF tne relationslAip between two variables a third variable is any other variable that is extraneous to tne two variables oF interest True experiments control For tne possible in uence of third variables Va Viable Ahg cvcht situation behavior or individual characteristic that varies that is has at least two vaiacs Concurrent Validity Tne construct validity 0F a rneasure is assessed by examining wnetner groups of people differ on tne measure in expected ways Construct Validity The degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure Content Validity An indicator of construct validity of a measure in which tne content of tne measure is compared to the universe of content that defines tine construct Convergent a id ity The construct validity 0F a measure is assessed by examining tne extent to wnicln scores on the measure are related to scores On other measures of tne same construct or similar constructs Cronbacn s Allona An indicator of internal consistency reiiabiiitg assessed by examining tne average correlation oF eacn itein question in a measure with every otner question Discriminant al id ity The construct validity 0F a measure is assessed by examining the extent to which scores on the measure are not related to scores on conceptually unrelated measures Face Validity The degree to which a measurement device appears to accurately measure a variable lnte rnal Consistency Rel ia bil itg Reliability assessed witn data collected at one point in time witn multiple measures of a psycnological construct A measure is reliable wnen tne multiple measures provide similar results I mterrateer Reiiabiiitg Am indicator of reliability that examines the agreement of observations made by two or more raters judges Interval Scale A scale of measurement in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size Item Total Correlation The correlation between scores on individual items with the total score on all items of a measure M easu Vetwent E VVOV The degree to which a measurement deviates From the true score value Nominal Scale A scale of measurement witln two or more categories that have no numerical less than greater than properties Orallnal Scale A scale oF measurement in which the measurement categories Form a rank order along a continuum Pearson Product M0rvent Correlation Coefficient A type of correlation coefficient used witn interval and ratio scale data In addition to providing inFOrrnation on the strength of relationship between two variables it indicates the direction positive or negative of tne relationsz Predictive Vai idity The construct validity 0F a measure is assessed by examining the ability of the measure to predict a Future behavior Ratio Scale 9 A scale oF measurement in which there is an absolute zero point inolicatin an absence of the variable eing measured An implication is that ratios of numbers on the scale can be Foyrmeol generally these are physical measures such as weight or timeol measures such as aluration or reaction time Reactivity A problem of measurement in which the measure changes the behavior being observed Reh39abih39ty The degree to which a measure is consistent Split Ham Reiiabiiitg A reliability coefficient determined by tne correlation between scores on naif of tbe items on a measure with scores on the otner half of a measure Test Retest Rel iabil itg A rel iabil itg coefficient determined by correlation between scores on a measure given at one tirne with scores on tne sarne measure given at a later time True Score An individual s actual score on a variable being measured as opposed to tne score tine individual obtained on tne measure itself


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