ANT160, Week 4 of notes
ANT160, Week 4 of notes ANT 160
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aneissa Coulter on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 6 Outline February 8, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Where Food Comes From: Diversification of Subsistence and the Origins of Food Production • “…advances in subsistence technologies are a necessary precondition for any significant increase in either the size or the complexity of any society.” (Nolan and Lenski 2006: 57). • “Complex societies are those in which hierarchically ordered social components exhibit marked functional differentiation and specialization. The components are therefore functionally interdependent in that no individual or group can fulfill all of the required roles and duties.” (Carmichael 1995: 181). • After the lithic revolution of the Oldowan, the Acheulean hand axe technology was successful for almost 1,000,000 years. • The invention of pottery was a major technological achievement. • Pottery was first invented in Japan around 12,000 years ago. • However, early pottery at ca. 20,000 years ago has recently been reported as recovered from Xianrendong Cave, Jiangxi Province, China (Wu et al. 2012). • In the Americas pottery was invented only 7,000 years ago in northern South America. • In northern Africa, 10,000 years ago. • In the Levant, 8,000 years ago. • Pottery was important because it changed the way that humans processed their foods for consumption and it proved health conditions of such foods by removing some of the toxins. • Initially, pottery had a ritual use for serving and fermentation. Later its function expanded to the cooking for meals. • Before pottery, most of the food was cooked by direct fire or roasting pits and heating rocks. Food Production • The shift from collecting foods to food cultivation is also linked to the beginning of the Holocene Period. It began to occur around 10,000 years ago in the Levant (Palestine, Israel, Syria)(Prepottery Neolithic period). • In Asia, around the same time as well as in Thailand, China and Indus delta (Pakistan). • In Turkey, Iraq, Zagros mountains in Iran. • In the Americas evidence for early cultigens has also been pushed back to 10,000 to 8,000 BP in Peru and Mexico. Why we domesticated plants: • Conditions: population pressure, reduced mobility, competition for resources. • Intensification in terms of the use of space with wild foods that are selected because of the large number of offspring (seeds) and short timing in reproduction. 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 6 Outline February 8, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • Management of risk in relation to dry seasons or winter conditions and by being predictable in their availability. Food production favored human populations to be able to: • Live in small villages that have the characteristics of supporting extended families. • Territorial control of land • Division of labor in terms of gender • Strong basis in kinship relations • Storage of resources in relation to seasons of hunger (dry season or winter season). • The rise of food production seems to correlate with intensification in processing technologies as well. Example fermentation and improvement of health conditions. • Changes in cosmologies. It is the time of the formation of cemeteries as specialized areas. • The formation of religious cults: mother goddess, Bull cults, Skull cults (cult of the ancestors). • “The ancient tell of Jericho, located near major spring at the northern end of the Jordan Valley in Southwest Asia. The tell is mound of the accumulation of 10,000 years of human occupation.” (Price and Feinman 2008: 219) • The tell at Jericho. Excavations have exposed a circular stone tower. The tower, wall, rockcut at Jericho. (Prince and Feinman 2008: 221) Problems with increased food production and reduction of mobility: • Increased population growth • Increased the spread of transmissible diseases • Decreased the quality of the food (less protein, more carbohydrates and sugars). • Warfare • Economic inequality between groups and hereditary social inequality Which plants were domesticated: • Americas: Tomatoes, potatoes, beans, peanuts, manioc, peppers, squash, quinoa. What is missing here? Corn. (Kentucky, sunflowers “Mammoth Cave”) • Southeast Asia: Rice, millet, taro, yam, banana, oranges, coconut, cucumbers. • Southwest Asia: Emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, lentils, chickpea, barley. • Africa: Millet, African rice, sorghum. • Location of Giant’s Coffin (TU B5 and B6) in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. • The adoption of agriculture is related to the needs of the local populations. Some societies remained as huntergatherers even up to presentday. • Major dispersion of family languages seems to be related to the expansion of food production technologies and migration of food producers. Example: IndoEuropean protolanguage. Domestication of animals • Husbandry or domestication of animals were activities that occurred after the domestication of plants. 2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 6 Outline February 8, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • Domestication of animals allowed humans to colonize and use difficult environments, such as the Saharasahel where agriculture is very limited. It also allowed the development of technologies such as horsedrawn vehicles. • Map of Old World Civilizations (association of the origins of agriculture with the rise of ancient states/empires [civilizations]) (Map 26 in John L. Allen and Audrey C. Shalinsky. 2004. Student Atlas of Anthropology. McGrawHill Publishers, New York.) Conclusions • The origins of food production of both plants and animals was a continual process. • It involved the purposeful cultivation of plants and herding of animals but also included the reduction in the mobility of groups (increased sedentism) and the invention of new technologies like groundstone lithics and ceramics. • Once this process was underway it laid the foundation for a series of human behavioral changes eventually leading to the development of complex societies. 3 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 7 Outline February 10, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Systems of Food Collection and Production • What are we studying? • The uses of plants and animals by humans and how this relationship affects human behaviors and strategies for survival. Difference between Wild, SemiDomesticated and Domesticated Plants • The food production and domestication process of plants and animals is a continuum which runs from foraging of wild plants, to cultivation of semidomesticated plants to full domestication and agriculture. • This continuum involves varying behaviors including foraging, plant husbandry, horticulture and agriculture. • One must understand the difference between agriculture (a human technological innovation and change in human behavior) versus domestication (a genetic change evident in plant structures). • From Ford, Richard I. 1985. The Processes of Plant Food Production in Prehistoric North America. In Prehistoric Food Production in North America, edited by Richard I. Ford, pp. 1 18. Anthropological Papers No. 75. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. • Domesticationthe genetic changes to plant and animals that are caused by unintentional and intentional human manipulation and which result in the dependence of the plant or animal for its reproduction on humans. • Foraging and Collecting the search for and collection of useful plant parts without intentional planting or changes to the landscape. • Managing the maintenance of important plants without international planting. • Cultivation/Horticulture the intentional planting, tending, and harvesting of plants with changes to the landscape. • Agriculture large scale, labor intensive production of plants. Changes to the landscape obvious. Types of Human Subsistence Systems Used to Obtain Plant Resources • Foraging and Collecting – the search for and collection of useful plant parts without intentional planting. • Hunting • Example: The Nukak, Colombian Amazon. (from Cabrera, G., C. Franky, and D. Mahecha. 1999. Los Nukak: Nómadas de la Amazonía Colombíana. Editorial Universidad Nacional, Bogotá.) • Residential mobility. Movement of group to resources. For instance the Nukak have been recorded to have ca. 69 camps per year with each occupied about 5.3 days. • Logistic mobility. Use of base camps. Movement of task groups to resources. 1 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 7 Outline February 10, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World • (from Cabrera, G., C. Franky, and D. Mahecha. 1999. Los Nukak: Nómadas de la Amazonía Colombíana. Editorial Universidad Nacional, Bogotá.) • Large territories. • Seasonal movements based on resource availability. (from Cabrera, G., C. Franky, and D. Mahecha. 1999. Los Nukak: Nómadas de la Amazonía Colombíana. Editorial Universidad Nacional, Bogotá.) • Managing (plant husbandry) – the maintenance of important plants without international planting, • (from Cabrera, G., C. Franky, and D. Mahecha. 1999. Los Nukak: Nómadas de la Amazonía Colombíana. Editorial Universidad Nacional, Bogotá.) • Cultivation and Horticulture – the intentional planting, tending, and harvesting of plants. • Landscape modification • Continuum from mobile to semisedentary to sedentary (staying in one place for most of the year). Extensive Agricultural Systems. • Examples: Slash and Burn Agriculture, Arboreal culture. • Semisedentary to sedentary. (fromChagnon, Napoleon A. 1983. Yanomamö: The Fierce People. Third edition. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York.) • Maintenance of a diversity of crops with a field • Use of fallow to replenish soil • Seasonal cycle of cutting, burning, planting, and harvest. (from Cabrera, G., C. Franky, and D. Mahecha. 1999. Los Nukak: Nómadas de la Amazonía Colombíana. Editorial Universidad Nacional, Bogotá.) • Seasonal. (from Cabrera, G., C. Franky, and D. Mahecha. 1999. Los Nukak: Nómadas de la Amazonía Colombíana. Editorial Universidad Nacional, Bogotá.) Intensive Agricultural Systems. • Examples: Monocropping. Industrial Agriculture. • Sedentary societies • Focus on one or few crops within a field • (Presentday rice cultivation near Wangdong Cave in Jiangxi Province, China) (From Smith, Bruce D. 1998. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library. New York.) • Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) grown in highaltitude basins and valleys of the Andes, South America. (From Smith, Bruce D. 1998. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library. New York.) • Use of terraces, irrigation, and fertilizers to replenish soils. • Narrow rice terraces near Guilin, China. (From Smith, Bruce D. 1998. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library. New York.) 2 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 7 Outline February 10, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Animal Husbandry • From J, CluttonBrock, editor. 1989. The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation. Unwin Hyman, London. • Hunters are foodextractors who are only interested in dead animals. They interact with prey when it is about to be killed. • Herdfollowers may correspond to a human population that ranges over the same area in its annual cycle as the animal population, or it may apply to particular humans that are associated with particular herds of animals which is equivalent to ranching. • The rancher loosely owns herds of animals for exploitation of meat and other resources that are often marketed. The animals may be wild, feral, or domestic but they live as wild animals except that their territory is usually restricted. • Nomads may be wandering huntergatherers or mobile pastoralists. • Pastoralists live in North Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and subSaharan Africa. • They are herders whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and the yak. • Pastoralists are divided into two broad groups. • Pastoral nomadism proper = characterized by an absence of agriculture as in the Sahara Desert. When the entire group – men, women, and children – move with the animals throughout the year. Frequently found in the Middle East and North Africa. Trade for crops. • Seminomadic pastoralism = when part of the group moves the herd periodically to new pastures but most people stay in the home village. Examples from Europe and Africa. Produce their own crops in the home village. Most common type. • Transhumants are agriculturalists who move their livestock between mountain and lowland pastures. Found in the Mediterranean and southern Europe, also in the Andes Mountains of South America. • Example below from llama herders in the farthest part of northwest Argentina. Two herding systems based on seasonality. For instance hill people live at base camp in the rainy season from November to the beginning of April. Then the llamas move up the mountains in the dry season from April to October. Herders follow the llamas and stay there until the next change of seasons. From Mario A. Rabey. 1986. Are llamaherders in the south central Andes true pastoralists? In The Walking Larder. Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation, edited by J. CluttonBrock, pp. 267276. One World Archaeology. Unwin Hyman, London. 3 Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture 7 Outline February 10, 2016 ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Maps Illustrating Correlations Between Environment and Subsistence Strategy as Well as With Other Social Systems • World Ecological Regions.Orange areas include dry steppe, desert and semi desert savanna. From Allen, John L. and Audrey C. Shalinsky. 2004. Student Atlas of Anthropology. McGrawHill, New York. • World Land Use, A.D. 2000. Tan color is dryland nomadic livestock herding. From Allen, John L. and Audrey C. Shalinsky. 2004. Student Atlas of Anthropology. McGraw Hill, New York. • Kinship Structures. Yellow stripped is monogamy, polygyny, arranged and cousin. Purple is polygyny, arranged, and cousin. Green is monogamy, polygyny, and arranged. Orange stripped is monogamy and arranged. • Population Growth Rates. Red is more than 2 %. From Allen, John L. and Audrey C. Shalinsky. 2004. Student Atlas of Anthropology. McGrawHill, New York. • World Religions. Green is Islam. Purple and orange are Roman Catholic and Protestant. Brown is animism. From Allen, John L. and Audrey C. Shalinsky. 2004. Student Atlas of Anthropology. McGrawHill, New York. Summary on Pastoralism • Occurs in semiarid to arid conditions. • Involves a nomadic lifestyle based on the herding of livestock. • Polygyny or multiple marriages and large families are common. • Kinship structures based on the clan and can be extensive in territorial control. • Work routine, ethic and structure different from agricultural societies. • As industrializing horticultural/pastoral societies, population growth rates are high. Thus growth in productivity is eliminated by population growth rate causing a reduction in the standard of living and poverty. • World religion tends to be Islamic. 4
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