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Chapter Four Outline

by: Ashley Pacilio

Chapter Four Outline TXMI 3530

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Retail > TXMI 3530 > Chapter Four Outline
Ashley Pacilio
GPA 3.69

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About this Document

These notes are an outline of chapter four of our textbook
Apparel Quality Analysis
Laura McAndrews
Class Notes
Fashion, apparel, manufacturing, Textiles, sewn products, retail, business, Accounting
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Pacilio on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXMI 3530 at University of Georgia taught by Laura McAndrews in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Apparel Quality Analysis in Retail at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
CHAPTER FOUR: GARMENT CONSTRUCTION DETAILS • The aesthetic appearance is what initially draws a customer to a garment but it is the fit and construction that typically leads them to purchase FIT AND CONSTRUCTION DETAILS • Fit: the relationship between the body and the size an styling of a garment o A properly fitting garment should provide a smooth appearance that is free of wrinkling, bulging, or sagging o Key fit considerations: ease, fabric grain, darts and seams, manipulation of fabric through other construction details, and overall aesthetic appearance of how the garment hangs Ease • A key fit consideration • The amount of fabric allowed in a garment design to accommodate body movement • Garment dimensions minus body dimensions equals ease • Functional ease, also known as wearing ease, is the appropriate amount of fullness added to a garment to allow for adequate movement of the body • It’s important for companies to have consistent sizing and allow for appropriate ease during the design development, patternmaking, and grading portions of the product development process during production • Customers perceive inconsistency in size as poor quality • Design ease or style ease integrates functional ease plus any additional fullness necessary to achieve a desired silhouette or design Fabric Grain • Affects the overall fit, appearance, and quality • Three types: straight grain, cross-grain, and bias grain • Straight grain: runs in the warp direction in woven fabrics and the wale direction of knitted materials (parallel to the fabric’s selvage) o Provides the most stability because the warp yarns are stronger than the weft o Most common o Warp runs vertically à crisp appearance • Cross-grain: runs in the filling direction of woven fabrics and the course direction of knitted fabrics, which is perpendicular to the selvedge o Typically used to make a border print at the hemline of a garment o Board prints run parallel to the selvedge of the fabric so the hem of the garment makes use of the border that runs along the edge of the fabric • Bias grain: runs diagonally across a fabric o Achieves a body skimming effect o True bias runs at a 45 degree angle from the intersection of straight and cross-grains o Provides stretch in woven fabrics o Allows for better fabric drape against the natural curves of the body to enhance fit o While bias-cut woven fabrics do provide stretch, garments constructed of knitted fabrics do not require the same level of shaping methods as woven or felted garments o Low-stretch knits require some shaping to contour portions of the body while high-power knits simply stretch to fit the shape of the body § Allows it to fit a wider range of sizes o Garment styles that require a close fit (leotards, swimwear, active wear, etc.) are constructed out of knit fabrics because they stretch and move with the body • On-grain: has warp and filling yarns that meet at right angles at the points of intersection • Off-grain: skewed yarns, meaning the warp and filling yarns do not meet at right angles at the intersecting points o Poor quality because they do not hang properly and often appear twisted o Can mess up the placement of the garment’s seams o Can be avoided through careful fabric inspection, production pattern and marker development, and monitoring fabric spreading and cutting Darts and Seams • Garments are created by taking two-dimensional fabrics and implementing shaping strategies to contour the material around the body, a three- dimensional form • Shaping methods (shaping strategies): include darts and dart equivalents o When the pattern block is modified to develop a new style, the type, placement, and number of the shaping methods determine how the garment will fit o Seams are also required to assemble the style and can add aesthetic detail to the garment o The silhouette and fit of a garment are determined by the shaping methods used • Darts: take up excess fabric in areas where the garment needs to be shaped around body contours o Excess fabric folded back on itself at the fullest point and converges to a diminishing point, creating a triangular shape in an effort to fit the natural contours of the body o Frequent areas: bust, waist, hips, and shoulders o Variety of sizes, shapes, and lengths • Straight darts: commonly known as single-pointed darts, are typically used to remove excess fabric at the bust, elbow, hip, neck, shoulder, and the waist areas • French dart: creates a diagonal design line that originates from the side seam at any point between the hipline to two inches about the waist and tapers to the bust-line o Provides fit between the hip or waist and the bust area • Concave darts: curve toward the body and provide a means for fitting the midriff area of a garment from the bust-line to the waist • Convex darts: used when fabric needs to contour around areas of the body that curve outward such as the abdomen, bust, and hips • Double-ended darts: (also called double-pointed darts or fish-eye darts); may utilize straight, concave, or convex converging pattern lines o Originates under the apex level and extends to the hip level and contours fabric to the curves of the body from the bust through the waist to the hip o Used to fit one-piece dresses, coats, and long jackets at the waistline • Can range from basic fit elements to decorative design details • The size, length, and number of darts used to fit a body contour impacts how the garment fits • Major body curves require larger darts whereas minor curves can be accommodated with narrow darts • Every dart added increases production cost • Darts that create visual interest: decorative darts, French darts, dart slashes, flange darts, and dart tucks • Decorative darts: formed on the exterior of the garment to offer a design detail by emphasizing a style line while meeting the function of fit o Can be stitched with contrasting thread to further emphasize the visual effect • Dart slash: incorporates fullness that is gathered into one leg of the dart in an effort to shape the garment around the bust, shoulder, or hip and can also be used to add fullness to a sleeve • Dart tucks and flange darts: similar in that they are both released at one end to provide ease o Flange darts: have pleats that are formed by folding the fabric back on itself § Then it’s stitched down a specified length and released at the opposite end to provide design interest as well as a means for fitting the contours of the body o Dart tucks: created by folding the fabric back on itself and then stitching it to a designated length with the remaining fabric released on the outside or inside of the garment, depending on the desired effect • Dart equivalent: integrates the dart into the shaped seam • Seams: formed when two or more pieces of fabric are sewn together to conform to a desired style o Can be straight or shaped • Straight seams: not considered dart equivalents because they are not shaping around a body contour in an effort to aid in the fit of a garment • Shaped seams: dart equivalents that are used to take up excess fabric and provide a smoother appearance, better fit and cleaner garment lines than the use of multiple darts • Princess line seam: when a seam line intersects with the bust apex and extends to the shoulder or armhole o The vertical seam provides better fit and a cleaner visual aesthetic than darts • Side panels: can be used in lieu of side seams to provide subtle fit and shape to coats, jackets, tops, and pull overs • Gores: vertical panel that is seamed together to provide fit and add design interest to dresses and skirts o Typically taper to the waist to fit the contours of the body and gradually flare out at the hem to add fullness o Four-gore, six-gore, and eight-gore are the most common styles • Yoke: another type of dart equivalent that utilizes a horizontal panel to shape a garment at the seams where it is joined o Common placements: the shoulder blade area of shirts or jackets, the waist of skirts, trousers, pants, and jeans, and midriff sections of dresses or gowns • Split yokes: the fit of the garment can dramatically improve because there is a seam at the center of the yoke which provides another area in which to shape and contour o Improve fabric utilization when creating the marker for cutting, whereas the yoke may not serve any fitting purpose o Can provide more options to improve the fit of the garment for the customer if it needs to be altered • Godet: fullness can also be integrated into a garment design o Triangular or rounded panel can be inserted and sewn into a seam or slashed area to provide fullness and can also create visual interest through the use of a contrasting fabric color and texture o The point or rounded portion of the godet must be securely stitched to avoid a hole from forming in the garment o Often used to provide fullness to coats, capes, dresses, gowns, lingerie, pants, skirts, sleeves, and tops • Gussets: diamond-shaped insets of fabric that are stitched into garment areas to provide fullness and ease of movement o Used in some fitted sleeve styles and the crotch area of pants, thermal underwear, intimate apparel, and active wear garments o Can be cut in one, two, or four pieces – these pieces shape the seam to fit the contour of the body o Provide ease of movement and eliminate strain at high stress areas of garments o Increases the cost of the garment and requires skilled labor to properly match and construct it • The number of darts and seams, as well as their complexity, directly impacts the fit and the quality of the garment Gathers, Pleats, and Tucks • Also known as dart equivalents • Fullness allows for ease of body movement and can be controlled through the design and structure of these style details • Gathers: allow for excess fabric to be taken up while providing a less- structured means for fit o Add fullness to the garment for ease of movement while providing comfort for the wearer o Also known as shirring o Provides even distribution of fullness in a garment and is created by drawing in one or more parallel rows of machine-gathering stitches o If elastic is used to gather the fabric, the garment is typically more forgiving and can provide fit for a wider size range such as extra small, small, medium, large, or extra large o Can be used to add design details and interest o Ruching (a form of gathering) creates a decorative detail to designated portions of apparel items by controlling predetermined fullness that is gathered and released to correspond to a parallel seam in a repeating pattern § Provides soft, draped folds between the gathered portions of the garment • Pleats: created by folding the fabric back on itself along the grain-line (with exception of sunburst pleats – these have radiating lines) to provide design interest as well as a means for fitting the contours of the body o Can be designed as dimension or flat • Dimensional pleats: set permanently into a pattern of creased ridges o Accordion, crystal, and sunburst • Accordion pleats: designed in a series of evenly spaced folds creating raised and recessed areas that are permanently heat set o Typically require the fabric panels be cut and hemmed prior to setting the pleats o If fabric is already pleated, cutting the pleating at the side seams may cause the fabric to not lay properly and can be a sign of poor quality • Crystal pleats: formed in the same way as accordion pleats, but the folds are narrowly spaced and the garment panels can be either hemmed prior to pleating or after o When hemming is completed after pleating, a ruffled effect is created o Often used for tubular and straight silhouettes • Sunburst pleats: selected if a radiating pleat is desired o Permanently heat set o Garment panels must be cut prior to pleating to achieve the desired effect o The narrow portion of the pleating is commonly positioned around the shoulder or waistline to create a full silhouette without adding additional bulk at the waistline • Flat pleats: are folded and can be creased, stitched to a specified length, or left unpressed and can appear as a single pleat, in groups, or in an evenly spaced series o Knife, box, inverted, kick, and side • Knife pleats: when pleats are formed by doubling the fabric back on itself, creating a series of folds in one direction o Typically used to add fullness to blouses, bodices, and skirts • Box pleats: created by two evenly spaced folds of material that are doubled over to face away from each other to add fullness to skirts, blouses, bodices, and below yokes at the shoulders and hips • Inverted pleats: have two folds of fabric that are doubled over but meet at a central point on the face of the garment to provide additional circumference ease to skirts, dressed, and the back of coats and jackets o Similar to box pleats • Kick pleats: made from inverted or side pleats that are released at knee level o Garments designed to be narrow and fit closely to the body may utilize kick pleats to provide walking ease • Side pleats: contoured to the body and lay all in one direction o Allows for more movement ease and can be used to add fullness to the garment while contouring body curves • Tucks: similar to pleats in the way they hold and shape fullness and in the way they are formed o Created by folding the fabric back on itself along the grain-line and can be completely stitched down or stitched to a designated length with the remaining fabric released o Pin, spaced, blind, piped, scalloped, cross, and release • Pin tucks: created through a narrow single fold or a series of fine parallel folds that are evenly spaced in a group and stitched down from seamline to seamline or within a garment section • Spaced tucks: created the same way as pin; however, the folds are wider and designed with the same amount of space in between each fold • Blind tucks: tucks designed to have the fold meet at the stitch line of the next tuck • Piped tucks: piping is inserted into a tuck to draw emphasis to it • Scalloped tucks: design tucks and to add decorative detail and accentuate an area o Shell-shaped tucks o Are formed by drawing in the folded edge at evenly spaced intervals and catching it at the stitch line to create a repeated scalloped edge • Cross tucks: more labor intensive; create a grid effect o A series of parallel and perpendicular folds are created and stitched down to create this effect • Release tucks: created through a single fold or a series of parallel folds stitched down for a designated length but are then released to direct fullness to a particular area of a garment • Tucks can enhance the look and fit of a garment, but can increase the cost due to increased labor • When a garment is cut from fabric that is off-grain and tucks are planned into the design, they will never lie flat without creases à sign of poor quality Full-Fashioned and Knit-and-Wear • Full-fashioned: two-dimensional pre-shaped garment pieces are produced by flatbed knitting machines and emerge ready to be assembled o Minimal seaming is required to assemble the product o More expensive to produce, provide better fit, and are of a higher quality than cut and sewn knit garments o Trim components are attached through linking or looping § Each stitch along the garment panel must be matched with each stitch along the edge of the trim in order to join them • Knit-and-wear: seamless; garments are available within each price classification and vary in design and styling complexity o The greater the complexity of styling and fit will typically yield a higher-quality garment that retails for a higher price o Three-dimensional pre-shaped garments are knitted to fit the shape of the body and may only require minimal operations for finishing o Eliminates pre-production and assembly operations such as cutting, sewing, and linking o Emerge from the knitting machine ready to wear Openings, Facings, and Closures • The ease of putting a garment on and off (donning and doffing) is directly related to the openings and closures selected by the designer • Impact garment fit, comfort, functionality, and price • Garment openings: allow access for the body when dressing and can be secured closed with a variety of different types of closures • Closures: used to secure garment openings and can be decorative as well as functional depending upon the desired effect • Style of opening and closure depends on design of the garment, the intended use, purpose and method of application, and fabric selected • Facing: used to finish the edge of a garment opening and to control the fit when any portion of the edge is cut on the bias o Created to contour the outer edge or portion of the garment area that needs to be controlled and finished at the opening • Shaped facings: require a separate piece of material ranging from 1 ½ to 2 inches in width that is stitched to the outer edge of the garment opening and folded back to provide a clean finished look and hide the raw edges • Extended facing: in the case of a cowl neck; shaped and cut as part of the shell garment and is folded back inside the garment to provide a soft draped edge • Bias facings: can be used in lieu of a shaped facing to finish a garment opening o Typically utilizes a narrow ½-inch wide strip of fabric that is cut on the bias and stitched along the raw edge and turned inside the garment and stitched again to conceal all the raw edges o Provide a clean finish and do not add additional bulk to the garment o The most cost-effective facing option because they don’t require interlining material for stabilization, and they use less fabric • Two facing styles: separate and all-in-one • Separate facings: individual facings; finish one edge of a garment area such as a neckline, armhole, vent, slit, or hem • All-in-one facings (combination facings): group garment areas together into one facing o Often used to finish a neckline and armhole all in one piece or a vent and hem all in one piece • If facings are cut too narrowly they can stick out of the garment opening and provide a very undesirable look and convey poor quality to the consumer • Plackets: allow for ease of dressing while providing a finish to the opening of a garment area o Openings that have a facing or can be slits or vents that have been finished at the edge with a binding, band, or hem o Can be integrated into the design of blouses, shirts, tops, skirts, dresses, coats, jackets, pants, and sleeves o Planned extensions that can be designed without a fastener or to have closures such as buttons, snaps, zippers, hooks and eyes, or ties • Band placket: two finished strips of fabric that create a lapped closure and can be seen from the face of the garment o Can be used to emphasize the neckline, hemline, or sleeves of dresses, shirts, pants, and shorts • Bound plackets: formed by two bindings that cover the raw edges of the garment and do not produce an overlap o Can be closed with a zipper, buttons and loops, hooks and eyes, or ties • Continuous lap placket: similar to the bound placket in that the edges are finished with a binding, but only one uninterrupted binding is used o Commonly used for fitted sleeve, cuff, neckline, and hem openings to provide room for the head, hands, or feet to pass through • Faced-slashed plackets: provide a clean finish to garment areas that have a vent where a seam is not planned o The garment edges merely meet; they do not overlap o Commonly used for slits, vents, necklines, and sleeves that will be left open or those that will be fastened with buttons and loops, hooks and eyes, or ties o Must be carefully secured at the rounded or pointed end of the opening to avoid a hole from forming • Hemmed-edge placket: commonly used for cuff openings in garments with bulky or loosely woven fabrics due to its low cost and simple construction o The horizontal section of a hemmed garment is positioned between the ends of an applied band to finish the raw edges o When the cuff or band is closed, a small pleat is formed to allow for a close fit when secured while allowing ease for movement • Tailored plackets: more expensive to produce because they require more fabric and are more labor intensive to construct but they provide a higher quality finish o Strong because it is formed when two unequal lengths of fabric are stitched to enclose the raw edges of the opening o The narrower strip of fabric is hidden below the wider strip that shows on the face of the garment when the placket is closed • Gauntlet button: a buttonhole and button that appear in the sleeve placket used to secure the opening and prevent gaping o Commonly used on better quality-dress shirts o Adds to the cost of the garment but offers a higher quality finish and increases the functionality and fit of the garment • Zipper applications allow garments to open and close and are selected based on the design of the garment, targeted price point, and quality level • Center zipper insertion: also known as a slot zipper, is constructed by folding back the seam edges of the opening and abutting them over the center of the zipper chain and where they are stitched to the zipper tape o In poor quality garments the zipper chain can sometimes be seen through the center front opening where the two sides meet • Exposed zipper insertion: where the teeth and part of the zipper tape are shown on the face of the garment to provide a decorative detail o Ornamental zippers with large teeth, contrasting colors, or even rhinestones can be used as a focal point in garment design o The pull portion of the zipper can also be decorative o Decorative zippers and tabs increase the cost of the garment but are typically the point of interest that persuades the customer to purchase the item • Invisible zipper insertion: sometimes a designer doesn’t want the zipper to detract from the styling of the garment à it conceals the chain when it is closed o Can be used in fitted sleeves and the back or side seam of dresses, skirts, pants, and trousers o When not applied properly, the zipper tape can show or the zipper can be difficult to open and close § Both of these are indications of poor quality • Lap zipper insertion: one bottom-folded seam edge of the garment section is stitched along the zipper tape while the other garment section is folded and stitched to form a tuck that hides the zipper from view o Can be used for side openings of dresses, skirts, pants, and sleeves, and for center front or center back openings of garments o Typically found in budget and moderately priced garments when an invisible zipper is not used • Fly-front concealed zipper applications: also have a lap that is formed when one side of the zipper is stitched to a facing that extends slightly beyond the garment closure o This extended portion hides the other half of the zipper o Commonly used for closures on coats, jackets, rain, and snow gear o Not uncommon to see other fasteners used in conjunction with the zipper for additional security • Trouser fly zipper insertion: commonly selected for trousers, jeans, and shorts o Utilizes a facing that is stitched to the zipper and extends beyond the center to hide the other side of the zipper that is secured to an underlay o More expensive to produce and can offer a higher quality application than side or back zipper insertions • Waistband openings are used to fit garments to the waistline and to secure them in the proper position o They also serve the purpose of finishing the edge of the opening • Straight waistband: most basic style; a band that sits at the natural waistline and can be seamed at the top edge or folded over and stitched to the top edge of the waistline area of the garment o When the waistband does not contain a self-fabric facing, elastic or ribbon can be used o Can also provide body and stability to sheer and loosely woven fabrics that require additional support o Elastic can also be used to back a straight waistband in knit garments to provide a non-roll option that is more compatible with the elasticity of the shell fabric o Can be used to accommodate closure openings at the center back, center front, and side seam o Can also be planned with an extension for openings with a lap • Contoured waistband: selected for garments with dropped or raised waistlines because it is shaped to fit the contours of the body o A facing shaped to match the contours of the body is required • Biased faced waistline: does not contain a band at all; designed for garments that do not have a waistband o Utilizes a bias cut facing that is contoured to the garment’s waistline and produces a flatter, cleaner finish so as not to detract from the rest of the garment • Trouser waistband: the waistband finish that adds additional support to tailored trousers and is an indication of a higher quality garment o Also referred to as the curtain waistband o More labor intensive and expensive because it requires a commercially prepared reinforced bias strip that is constructed with an additional bias strip designed to hang below the waistline seam and attaches along the upper edge of the waistband to support the self-fabric face o The lower edge of the waistband is not stitched closed o Provides a very aesthetically pleasing finish to the garment o Hook and bar often selected in conjunction with a button to add additional security to the closure o Some constructed with rows of rubber yarn or embossed or printed silicone adhered to the inner waistband material to produce a nonslip surface § Treatment is found in some waistbands of tailored garments to hold tucked-in shirts and blouses in place • Elasticized waistlines and stretch waistbands: provide the most ease when dressing and are one of the most economical methods for finishing the waistline opening in a knit or woven garment o The elastic can be applied directly to the waistline edge or to the waistband through means of a casing (can be made by folding over the edge of the garment of by a separate strip of material that is applied to hold the elastic or a drawstring to cinch in garment fullness to fit the designated body area such as a neckline, sleeve, waistline, leg opening, or hem) o A drawstring allows the wearer to control the garment circumference for comfort and fit o In higher-priced items, an additional 1/8 inch header is added to the top of the casing to provide stabilization for the elastic and to finish the edge o Vertical stitches can also be added through the side seams of the casing to help secure and stabilize the elastic to prevent rolling o Elastic rolls à poor quality o Casings can be applied solely to the inside or outside of a garment through a separate strip of fabric, bias tape, or ribbon that is stitched to only one side of the garment § Used to emphasize a design element § Inside: can be used to contour curved areas of the body or to eliminate bulk when heavier fabrics are used § Can contain elastic or drawstring • Button: most common closure o Can be made in the form of a disk, a knot, or other three-dimensional shape o Flat, dome, half-ball, and full-ball o Natural materials: bone, horn, leather, wood, shell, and tagua (a nut) o Man-made materials: glass, melamine, metal (brass, steel, stainless steel, or metal alloy), nylon, plastic, polyester, synthetic rubber, and urea formaldehyde o Man made à durable o Shell: nice design detail but can chip or break when drycleaned or commercially cleaned and pressed o Three classifications: sew-through, shank, and tack • Sew-through buttons: commonly called “eyed” buttons; have two or four holes for use in stitching it to the garment with thread o Can be sewn flat against the fabric, or a thread shank can be created to elevate the button • Shank buttons: have a protrusion on the underside containing a loop or hole made from metal or plastic so it can be attached to the garment o Allows for the point of attachment to be concealed from the face of the garment o Also for heavier, bulkier fabrics o Provides the proper amount of space needed to accommodate the thickness of the fabric ply and allows the button to rest on top of the buttonhole rather than distorting the surface of the garment • Tack buttons: made of metal and are cast with a shank that is attached to the garment with a single or double prong tack that is inserted through the back of the garment into the cap of the button o Selected for use in garments made with sturdy fabrics such as denim o Available with a fixed top or one that swivels to eliminate some of the strain of inserting it through the buttonhole • Buttonhole: necessary for a button to serve as a closure o An opening that must be large enough to accommodate a button passing through it, and it must remain secured o Constructed in the garment section that overlaps o Most common orientation is horizontal o Vertical buttonholes are used when a garment is designed with a hidden closure or with a narrow placket o Size must be appropriately scaled for the selected button size and style it as to accommodate o Classifications: straight: bound, and slot • Straight buttonhole: formed by a series of zigzag stitches in a rectangular formation o Stitching can vary in density and be secured at both ends with bar tacks or with one end bar tacked and the other end rounded in an eye formation (latter is better quality) • Bound buttonhole: also known as welt bound buttonholes, are constructed with separate strips of fabric used to form the lips where the button will pass through o Very functional and provides decorative detail when contrasting fabric is used o Provide a higher quality finish than straight buttonholes and are more expensive to produce because they require more fabric and are more labor intensive • Slot buttonholes: formed in a finished opening of a seam to provide a clean appearance and not detract from the garment’s design • Button loops: when a buttonhole is not desired or cannot be accommodated in the garment’s design o Can be made from fabric, a chain of thread, braid, or cord and are sewn into the folded garment edge or seam o Allows for the closure to extend beyond the edge of the garment and can be used on center or lapped applications o The loop ends must be securely stitched into the seam to prevent them from pulling out during dressing or wear • Zipper: second most common closure o A device with interlocking metal or molded plastic teeth or coils that can be opened or closed through the use of its slider and pull tab o Materials: aluminum, brass, copper, nickel, nylon, polyester, or zinc o Aluminum: very economical; typically do not slide easily because the metal is too soft; can become sharp along the edges of the teeth after time; should not be used in any garment that comes in direct contact with the skin or children’s apparel o Nickel: poses a safety hazard to people who have an allergy to this type of metal; some countries don’t allow it at all in apparel products; o Material, style, and size of zipper depend on the design of the garment, durability required, placement, and visibility o Decorative zippers can be used as a focal point in a garment design • Snap: make dressing easy and can be used in a similar manner as a button by attaching two garment parts together o Sewn-in, no-sewn, and snap tape • Hook: a metal fastener that can be paired with an eye or bar to secure a garment closed o Bars are typically used to secure lapped closures whereas eyes are often used to close abutted edges o Hook and eye performs best when there is a slight amount of tension at the point of closure § Available as sewn-on, no-sew, or mounted on tape o Lingerie hooks can be made from metal or plastic and the open portion of the hook attaches by sliding through a fabric loop o Ties: similar to drawstrings; used to fasten or control fullness in a garment area and are secured by tying pairs of fabric strips together Hem Finishes • Hem: used to finish the bottom edge of a garment as well as sleeves to provide stability and a clean finish at the garment’s edge • Hemline: the designated line along which the hem is to be folded, faced, or finished • Blind hems: stitched with a series of interlocking loop stitches (blind stitches), which are not visible on the face of the garment o Can contain a raw edge that is folded under and stitched, or that is covered with seam tape and stitched to finish the edge without it being visible from the face of the garment o Very popular for hemming tailored trousers, skirts, and shorts • Double-folded hems: folded two full hem depths and stitched into place to help stabilize garments made from lightweight fabrics or add durability to rugged apparel items o Found in many types of apparel items • Overedge hem: when stitching is used to cover the unturned raw edges of the fabric on sleeves or the bottom edge of a garment o Does not add any bulk to the hemmed areas of the garment and the interlocking thread loops of the stitching formation prevent the raw edges from raveling o When a garment made of knitted fabric is stretched along the hemline as the hem is stitched, a lettuce edge is created as the overedge hem is formed § Gives the hemline a wavy or curly appearance that is both functional and decorative • Rolled hem: for garments made of sheer or lightweight fabric; very narrow o Typically 1/8 inch in depth and is formed when the layer of material is fed through an attachment that rolls the raw edges and folds them under while the hem is stitched o Commonly found on sheer blouses and gowns made of lightweight fabrics • Band hems: often used to add contrast to dresses, shorts, and tops, through color or texture at the bottom and sleeve edges of a garment o Strip of material is applied to the garment edge to conceal the raw edges and add a clean finish • Bound hem: utilizes a bias strip of material to conceal the raw edges o Sometimes referred to as welt finished edge or Hong Kong finish o Can add contrast in color, pattern, or texture o Commonly used on sleeveless garments and bottom edges of skirts or dresses where decorative detail is desired • Faced hem: adds subtle contrast o Typically constructed along a shaped edge but can also be created on a straight edge o Constructed using a facing made from a separate piece of fabric of the same color or contrasting in color or pattern to add a design detail o The hem facing is stitched to conceal the raw edges as well as provide additional support to maintain the desired shape at the hemline


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.