MUNM at OU Exam 2 notes The barroque period
MUNM at OU Exam 2 notes The barroque period 1113 MUNM
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by blanca mirella on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1113 MUNM at University of Oklahoma taught by Rodgers L in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Understanding Music >3 in Music at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
THE BARROQUE PERIOD 16001750 1 History The individual country of Europe was busy with the project to inventing for themselves a coherent identity as a nation state merchant classes were busy inventing capitalism while their ruling and military classes occupied ghting wars of religion The formation of national states During 16005 monarchs sought to consolidate their power around the idea of a nation Historians call this idea quotabsolute monarchyquot The effect of music will see genders such opera and fragment around national tastes wars of religion the thirty years war was fought mostly on German soil but every nation from Spain to Poland from Sweden to Italy participated at one time or another The opposing forces were Catholics against Protestants There were no winners only losers The end of this period of war saw Europe more divided than ever long national The impact of these wars on music was diminished resources for lavish musical performance to the central formation of speci c repertories of music meant for worshippers in speci c na on The birth of Capitalism the advent of capitalism can be traced to the exploration and conquest of the rest of the world undertaken by Europeans in the 15005 and largely completed by the end of the 18005 This European project of conquest would come to be called quotimperialismquot The principal reason for these conquests was pro t The effect on music of capitalism39s rise will be a drastic increase in professionalism over amateurism Baroque de nition come from the Portuguese language quotbarrocoquot refers to a pearl of irregular shape The Doctrine of Affections is one aesthetic ideal that draws on the notion that the arts should move the emotions so the artist must select a desired affect an emotional state that his or her work will achieve in the viewer or listener which evokes a singles unadulterated emotional state 2 MONTEVERDI39S OPERA ORFEO quotin orito pratoquot quotTuse mortaquot CD 1 12 In Greek mythology Orfeo or Orpheus was the semigod of music and had the power to charm listeners by singing and playing the LYRE The rst opera that still exists is L39euridice by Jacopo Peri Peri s opera was comprised of a series of monodiesl dramatic vocal music for solo voice with instrumental accompaniment Taken together these monodies tell the legend of Orpheus With this word Opera was born Opera a dramatic work of art presented in music thought of initially as a string of musical works performed one right another which taken together tell a complete story ORFEO the libretto of Orfeo Spans ve acts with a proaque a The rst act center upon the two lovers Orfeo and Euridice b The second act Orfeo is off celebrating with his friends the shepherds They are still happy A messenger enters with terrible news Euridice has been bitten by an asp and has died c Act three nds Orfeo heading towards Hades the Greek land for the dead in order to reclaim his bride His plan depends on singsong so plaintively of his grief that Pluto king of dead will relent and return Euridice to him Orfeo nd Caronte the skeletal boatman who controls the traf c to and from Hades Orfeo sings and Caronte falls asleep Orfeo takes Caronte39s boat and sets off for Hades d Act four Orfeo sings before Pluto and his bride Prosperina daughter to the goddess of fertility Orfeo39s song moves Prosperina to beg her stern husband to allow Euricide to return to the world of the living with Orfeo The god gives in on the one condition that Orfeo refrain from looking at his wife until after they leave Hades On the way out Orfeo cannot contain himself and gazes upon Euridice dooming her forever e Act ve Orfeo lamenting his fate once more Monteverdi s music captures the affect of sadness and mourning through the music alone United with its text this monody provides a clear example of a baroque composer s effoct to move the emotion To set this text Monteverdi employs texture typical of monody The solo singer is accompanied by only two instruments the organ and the chitarrone like lute The bass notes performed by the organist39s left hand are duplicate on the chitarrone for reinforcement and color The right hand of the keyboard player freely lls in the chords being outlined notefornote by the continuos quotcontinuoquot bass quotbassoquot This texture of melody the singer with an accompaniment of bass instruments captures the imagination of Baroque composers for the entire duration of the period We call this small group of bass instruments quotbasso continuo orouoquot The Renaissance ideal emphasizing the human voice alone the idea of humanism while the baroque period39s new emphasis on voices with instruments stems from the passion for the affects There were two ornaments you hear often during the singing of Baroque opera a Trillo when the same note is sung over and over in rapid succession a baroque style ornament It was highly prized sound during Monteverdi s time b Passagio an ornament comprising quick run up and down scales often heard during the singing of a Baroque opera Monteverdi s opera Orfeo was performance in a small hall in the Palace of the Duke of Mantua The idea of presenting opera to a paying audience drawn from the general public would not dawn until 1637 when the Teatro San Cassiano opened its door in Venice 3 MUSIC IN VENICE DURING THE BAROQUE PERIOD soon after writing Orfeo 1607 Monteverdi received an important new as the music director for the cathedral of St Mark39s in Venice Combining forces of diverse timbre like choruses combined with an ensemble of brasses in the same piece became the favorite strategy of Baroque composers This practice call A The Concertato Principle calls for composers to combine diverse musical C forces such as choruses combined with an ensemble of brasses in the same piece toward a common purpose as opposed to one basic timbre most often human voices This practice started in Venice Barbara Strozzi like most professional female musicians of her age She was specialized in vocal genders One emerging genre was the Vocal cantata is a sizable work for small orchestra chorus and vocal soloists either sacred or secular An example from one of Strozzi39s vocal cantatas is quotlaorime miequot CD1 13 In lagrime mie it is safe to assume that the vocal part was originally written for a male a voice which possessed the virtue of a boy s high register coupled to a fullgrown man39s vocal power The poem lagrime mie deals with the poet s remorse at the death of his beloved Lidia Monteverdi s style as monody and Stozzi found her own style known recitative that means speechlike singing After the rst three lines of the poem the style of singing changes from recitative to a slightly more tuneful style called ariaoso That is a cross between the declamatory style of recitative and the lyric style called quotariaquot aria is a vocal number sung solo or as a duet with orchestra in a work such as an opera oratorio or cantata Strozzi presents a single strikingly emotional mood in the piece She uses the basso continuo texture In this case the only instrument accompanying the vocalist is a harpsichord Performers could however use any bass instruments and any instruments capable of playing chords that they wished Castrati one last important word about performance of this piece Before 18005 a common practice in Italy and others parts in Europe no in France was to castrate a male singer who has castrated before puberty in order to maintain a soprano boys who could sing particularly well The rst public opera performance took place in Venice Instrumental Music while opera thrived in Venice during the last half of the 16005 the creation of complex works for instruments without voices occupied many skillful ltalian composers Venice was not at the forefront of innovation Arcangelo Corelli in Rome mastered the solo sonata or Giuseppe Torelli in Bologna was the popularizing of the concerto took price of place as instrumental innovation during the late 16005 Giovanni Legrenzi was Venice39s most celebrated instrumental composer He composed seventeen operas and a large body of concertos in Venice Concerto means quotto contendquot it is an instrumental work for soloist or group of soloists and orchestra Concerto Grosso means quotlarge concertoquot it is an instrumental work that requires many solo instrumentalists rather than just one and orchestra ritornello form a Baroque form that utilizes the recurrences of a ritornello theme the orchestra material that is introduced at the beginning of a movement of a work such as a concerto which always returns usually in fragments and in different keys throughout The ritornello form is applied to the first and the laslrn gvements ofa baroque style coqcerto l ghghau l 5 u a quot g 39 l l l quot I r v r a 7 r 5 u r LI 75 Thugh the soloists often utilize ritornello material as well they toss various ideas and embellished treatments of it back and forth between themselves in imitation as opposed to the homophonic orchestral returns Essentially this form encourages the listener to anticipate the orchestral returns of the ritornello though altered in treatment as recognized phrases between contrasting materials provided by the group of soloists As this form is frequently applied to the rst and the last movements of a baroque concerto the composer often has the orchestral ritornello build to emotional climax threequarters through the movement where one soloist is traditionally featured Here the soloist is asked to play an improvised passage unaccompanied An improvised solo within a large work such as a concerto is called a cadenza ANTONIO VIVALDI One of the Legrenzi39s students He provided Venice with its most lavish and celebrated outpouring of instrumental music Vivaldi excelled in all genres of music including opera and sacral vocal music He studied music and theology He was priest Uncomfortable with the public duties of the priesthood Antonio Vivaldi received a post as instructor of music at an orphanage run by the church in Venice which served only the abandoned or orphaned girls of Venice They were more than 6000 girls housed there Vivaldi39s most famous composition the four concertos for solo violin known as quotThe Four Seasonsquot 1725 The rst movement of the Spring Concerto la primavera CD1 14 Contains Vivaldi39s E The Concerto and Capitalism pictorial evocation of bird song a storm breezes and gentle brook Vivaldi uses for the rst movement of the Spring Concerto la primavera formal plan called ritornello form The ritornello form still very much used today For example popular songs use a form much like ritornello with their returning chorus Next time you listen your favorite song listen to see isn39t some musical theme often linked with catchy lyrics that returns more than once during the song Vivaldi was very clear about the images of spring that served as his guide in writing this movement In order to differentiate between the ritornello and the imaginary Vivaldi consistently let the whole orchestra play the ritornello while the solo violin emerges out the orchestra during the springtime imaginary The orchestra for this piece in keeping with the ideals of the concertato principle includes a basso continuo group made up of harpsichord cello and bass In addition to these forces Vivaldi uses an orchestra of strings including violins violas and cellos Only the basso continuo instruments play throughout the piece appearing simultaneously with the widespread adoption of capitalism as an available means of making money the concerto can be seen as the genre that brought money and fame to outstanding instrumentalists 4 OPERA OUTSIDE ITALY after the opening the Teatro San Cassiano in Venice in 1637 only the Italian city of Naples was quick to pick up the passion for the public opera During the following decades public theaters opened not only in Naples but in most of Italian cities The Venetian composer Orazio Benevoli brought opera to Vienna which led to the swift embrace of Italian opera throughout Germanspeaking Europe England quickly followed Austria and the German states in taking Italian opera to its heart Only France resisted the charm of Italian opera during the Baroque era In keeping with France s leadership in the crusade to form itself a modern nation state with an absolute monarch A OPERA AT THE COURT OF LOUIS XIV Louis XIV of France ruled with absolute authority from 16431715 He was known as quotThe Sun Kingquot So great was his power and perhaps his ego During his reign a magni cent palace was constructed at Versailles a small city outside Paris The Palace of Versailles covers many acres and houses a cathedral an opera house and more than 1000 bedrooms B JEANBAPTISTE LULLY The favorite composer of Louis XIV was an Italian named GiovanniBaptista Lully In order to achieve advancement within the French court Lully changed his name something more French sounding JeanBaptiste Lully Lully began his career as a violinist in the service of the king He composed dances as the royal court enjoyed dancing His endeavors in the regard pleased the king who eventually granted Lully a virtual dictatorship over music in France Lully also allowed to rule on all operatic performance in France Lully eventually took up the cause of composing operas for Louis XIV but he did not call them operas He used the French term tragedielyrique lyric tragedy that was full of visual spectacle borrowing from two great French traditions spoken tragedy and m Lully worked with the librettist jeanPhilippe Quinault Lully and Quinault had the wealth of the king behind their productions There was no question of economizing in order to extend pro ts they could spend all that was needed in order to realize their ambitions Every scene of a tragedielyrique required some amount of spectacle In addition to spectacle tragedielyrique emphasized recitative All the most important scenes are presented in this exclamatory vocal style ARMDE 1686 is a dramatic recitative from the tragedieIyrique The action of JeanBaptiste Lully s Armide takes place during the Crusades The titular character Armide is an Islamic Sorceress who has been campaigning against the crusading Renaud C George Frideric Handel 16851759 was born in the German states He became Kapellmeister to the Elector of Hanover in Hamburg A Kapellmeister is the person who leads musical activities for a court or cathedral and sometimes for both In Italy they say maestro da capella to signify the comparable post Monteverdi and Vivaldi for example both served as maestro da capella at St Mark s n Venice Monteverdi early 16005 and Vivaldi from 1700 until his death Handel39s career in London began on a controversial note His opera Rinaldo quotCara Sposaquot was written in Italian a language little known in London Handel was writing operas for London The world of opera was risky and expensive Audiences favored lavish entertainments with spectacular costumes and imaginative stage effects Those cost money Rivals wanted to see Handel ruined so even if his opera were expensive and successful there would be some bad critical reaction Handel search for a way out of Italian opera led him to the oratorio An oratorio is a largescale composition for soloists chorus and orchestra that tell a story much like opera but unlike opera these stories are usually religious and meant to be performed without costumes or stage movement Handel hoped that the oratorio would allow him to escape the eld of opera in London He mounted a large of number of them drawn from stories and myths of the Old Testament and Apocryphal books Today George Frideric Handel39s Messiah is one his most famous oratorio a genre meant to be performed without costumes or state movement The selection of Messiah to represent the oratorio is slightly controversial While it is certainly the most famous oratorio ever written it is also among the least representative of the typical oratorio For one thing the text does not consistently tell a story although there are narrative sections Rather Handel drew from mainly nonnarrative passage of the Bible for this libretto Oratorios more typically contain some dramatic con ict that features something like a beginning middle and end Messiah is divided into three parts The rst deals loosely with Old Testament prophecies of the coming of the messiah The second describes the suffering and death ofJesus followed by the spread of his teachings The nal section offers a meditation on faith In our anthology are two selections from Messiah The rst is a choral recitative CD1 17 Messiah quotthere were Shepherdsquot this text is narrative as it tells the story of an angel appearing before shepherds tending their ocks Chorus the choir interrupts the recitative taking on the dramatic role of the multitude of angels by singing the angelic message In addition Handel musically indicates both heavenly and earthly realms with his selection of voice types and rhythms The angelica text quotGlory to God Glory to God in the highestquot is sung by the high voices of the choir in an excited and animated rhythm For the words quotand peace on earthquot the lower voices of the choir are heard utilizing a much slower or peaceful rhythm The second excerpt from Messiah in our recorded anthology is by far the most famous section of the oratorio the quotHallelujah Chorusquot CD1 18 Its title indicates that the choir is gathered here to express thanks or praise to God Haj mfmam i H i Jurigmli m H1 inllm liiufiiirm ii in all Elm 15quot Imitation EM l h munimhah ill 72 1 pa 39 Because the King George II of England was so moved by this choral tribute paid to the quotKing of Kingquot at the rst London performance of Messiah he stood to show his respect The whole audience rose to their feet as well as loyal subjects would never sit in the presence of their standing monarch Consequently it has become tradition for the audience during the performance of the Hallelujah Chorus D Johann Sebastian Bach 16851750 has raise today as the central gure of the Baroque era He synthesized stylistic traits from Italian French and German music all the while helping to codify the system we call tonalty When Bach took up the profession of music it was generally regarded more as a craft man than an art He was innovator and composer who introduced new concepts forms genres and ideals the art of music From 17031707 he lived in small city of Arnstadt where he served as organist and choirmaster at the Lutheran Cathedral Most of his compositions from this period were for organ From 17081717 Bach was rewarded for his increasing virtuosity in playing the organ with a position as court organist to the Elector Weimar Bach even recomposed Vivaldi concertos for the organ After nine years in Weimar he became weary of his duties and sought to leave His employer the Elector was no legally obliged to let Bach depart This offended his aristocratic employer who made Bach spend one month in prison before letting him depart From Weimar Bach moved to small city of AnhaltCothen He wrote six Brandenburg Concerts named for the margrave of Brandenburg to whom Bach sent all copiespage 142 The Brandenburg Concertos Number 2 CD2 1 EWHFEE f jl h i 7 7 N 77 r r 7 m m r m Lif39mm quot Hmmr Haiti th H39 wquot 3 minili1iusriciamm infll F 39l39m i f mE HH I i li lg imm 7 A ziil iil fli l l mmlh Hatii anvil illr2 Emir i r them Inr1 ifi 39 i 3 mm While sum3f i n 1 39 1mm 39 393 11m un t lme unlike le i ill 1 139 LJ mini 1 l In this concerto movement Bach employs a very important motivic technique called quotFortspinnungquot means quotforward spinningquot a motivic technique that makes the melody of a work seems almost endless just as one instrument39s melodic phrase is coming to an end another instrument enters with a fresh melodic idea The idea of binding a piece together through not only the ritornello form but also through a seamless melody distinguishes Bach s style from that of his contemporaries see page 143 The last stop in Bach39s career took him in 1723 at huge city Leipzig Where he became the music director to the city s two Lutheran cathedrals where he composed more sacred music and the St Thomas Choir College Because Bach s duties now centered on the Lutheran church the craftsman Bach turned to composing mostly sacred music The genres that occupied him most during this time were cantatas multimovement devotional works for voices and small orchestra for use in the Lutheran service and setting of the gospels Bach musically set the text quotAch Golgathaquot from the gospel according to Matthew Bach set thegospe writer Matthew39s version of the nal week of the life of Jesus and the aftermath of his resurrection for use at a Good Friday observance in 1727The text refers to Golgatha the hill Jerusalem on which Jesus died Unlike opera they deal with sacred texts Unlike oratorio they do not tell a single dramatic narrative Bach39s setting of the gospels contain many such ariosoIike passages they also contain many arias Choruses in the manner of Handel and clear example of recitative In 1747 he began a project that he did not live to nish a series of fugues of graduated complexity called The art of the Fugue Bach hoped The Art of the Fugue would illustrate its worth to future generations Imagining that the piece would mainly serve purpose of study rather than performance Bach did not designate what instruments should play the fugues found in his collection Included in our record anthology is the third fugue from this collection Johann Sebastian Bach Fugue Contrapunctus III from The Art of Tha FugueCD2 3 H r ri eL tgu ii39r J39 uiir flj Iquot I Fin gt I51 r i Jih ZI W ia i l liar H quot 4 Ziaj i m raf e h u I quot quotJI IEi uuuuuuu 395 I ll ulquot r I 4 5UP mlquotillir EllTA ri39lsrhc hl a1 L l lnh I II i i x Irl cjfjl39 ii39l39il jli rl i1 F TI39I39IIIEI llmp Jh l i39um bi aimEFFE EiquotEW39ma39 H i F ICI a rEEIErl ezj iF 39i39iEi39cd39 in dv E Jlf39l39 3 Ila2amp7 II II39IJJ Iram1 Irv Elmira M YE Enlquotkl lllli lquot E f ll l J l l1 15 i L r 7 ukeEa III rennin 11iiei 39uillli Fmimtlu nipEnd 5 39 II39I EWFETLUE WEIFEFl air HTTV iui39Ed m ifj lm 39239 Efbi i 5111 31m n 551133 ELL1quot Inn Subjeeirs 5 s q In it is im lam bent9T I EEl39Eui IlJEasurEE WI ragaI gt n auxH illwluiuh39 null 4 a n 39 39 39 E39IEi ll iEL ily m iiim r g rum 11 warnsiE 39lsis birthdue Isl 7 r7 397 H r antbud l lscu39 irlgquot uL lii39gn BalmJam cm 777 7397quot quotIn 412 intFE J and Elsi tla 1553 h N Hit HEP rm 7 A IV V K llEd 151 m a 39Lunnm 39 39Eu L l P 7 F E SEI39JFE in HEIEILW V s t 5 IE 51 BETH 539 Hindi m rst K ETDE 1 I39JIInz JillHuman a ME I 39 5 7 I 39 quot L iEJrhcmaren mad m Em l E 31 imam r f LL and IE nilmanic W z en ln nineteenth century would reclaim Bach as a major gure The Bach name did not decline with the death of jS Bach however Bach had a large family with music tradition The most notable was his son Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach E THE FUGUE is more than style or technique or way of writing than a speci c form As a result it is extremely exible and varied A fugue could represent a single work a movement within a larger composition or a section within any movement It could be written for various voices or instruments or for a solo keyboard instrument utilized to execute multiple melodic lines In any case each linear line in a fugue is referred to as a voice THE FUGUE is a polyphonic composition for an established number of voices built on a single principal theme called the subject since all parts are based on the same linear material The fuoue subiect is relatively brief but distinctively bold usually consisting of relatively few pitches and clear rhythms for easy recognition The single principal theme of a fugue as all parts will be based on the same linear material In addition the subject is almost always noticeably presented in one voice at a time at the beginning with each entrance staggered Exposition is the rst or opening section of the fugue in which all the voices introduce the subject in an orderly manner Each voice utilizes a different pitch register the highest being the soprano and the lowest the bass The rst voice entrance is always in the tonic or home key while the second voice often called the answer enters in a second key as a contrast After the subject in the exposition is stated the melodic ine usually moves to a Countersubject making room for another subject entrance to be heard m countersubiect is a distinctive polyphonic line that recurrently accompanies the subject of a fugue in another voice page 48
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