PKSC 102- metals and glass
PKSC 102- metals and glass 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Addie Pearson on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 81499 - PKSC 1020 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Heather P Batt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Packaging Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
ALUMINUM, METALS AND STEEL, GLASS ALUMINUM Raw material - Most abundant metallic element in earth’s crust - 8.05% of first 10 miles of earths crust - 46.6% O2 - 27.6% silicon - Remainder exists as Al2O3 (alumina) - Once considered a rare, precious metal - Raw material process o Mined as bauxite (50% Alumina) o Produce alumina by Bayer Process o Produce aluminum from alumina by Hall-Heroult process (1886) - Bayer Process o Digest bauxite in hot sodium hydroxide o Forms sodium aluminate o Filter, seed with Aluminum hydrate o Crystalize out Al(OH3) o Heat o Form AlO2 (alumina) o Reduction cell More material process - Sheet ingot o Soat at 1000 F o Breakdown o Hot or cold rolling (similar to calendaring- conversion to package takes place) - Continuous cast o Cold roll (step where conversion to a package takes place o Aluminum- thickness/uses - Aluminum fol - .006” (g mili) - Peelable lid stock - .002-.003” (2-3 mili) - Heavy duty reyolds wrap - .001” (1 mili) - Reg Reynolds wrap - .0006” (2/3 mili) - Converter foil - .00024-.00035” Lamination: taking 2 different materials and putting them together to make a package Process of Lamination: - 2 rolls - Adhesive foundation - Go through nip rolls - Dried - Rewind to one roll - Purpose: combine materials together for best performance and lowest costs. - Lower thickness = higher water vapor transmission rate. - Thinner foil has greater chance of pinholes - Alloys- our metals are never 100% that metal. We mix our metals to get exactly what we want (strength, color, luster, chemical resistance, etc.) Substrates combined together for the best performance at the lowest cost Lower thickness, higher water vapor transmission rate. Thinner foil has a greater chance of pinholes Metallization Laminate construction—application Foil vs metallized film - How do you tell the difference? - Shine a flashlight through the package. o If you see light- metallized o If you don’t- foil Metals- steel - Advantages o Relatively abundant o Absolute barrier o Unbreakable - Disadvantages o Rust/iron pickup if not coated o Heavy weight o Limited recycling Metals- aluminum - Advantages o Relatively abundant o Absolute barrier (depending on thickness) o Lightweight o Unbreakable o Doesn’t contribute to off-taste (more than glass less than steel) o Printable o Recycleable - Disadvantages o Energy intensive o Relatively costly o Not degradable (but nothing is in a landfill) METALS Steel - Non-beverage cans in USA - Beverage cans in Europe - Drums, strapping, etc. - Raw materials o Iron o Converted to steel in steps Melt/form, color reduction, annealing, tempering Like calendaring o Steel is coated to be used in can manufacturing Some are Controversial- BPA- chemical used in coating of plastics Aluminum - Beverage cans - Trays - Foils (bare or laminated) Metals- cans- two basic types - Three piece (most soup cans) 1. Rectangle formed into cylinder 2. Seal side seam of cylinder (many times there is sidewall beating for structural integrity.) 3. Two metal circles rolled onto ends of cylinder (wore after closure so it lasts forever- pressure chamber) 4. Three ways to seal side seam of three piece can 1. Mechanical clinch seam- like 2 hooks smashed 2. Welded seam 3. Adhesive-bonded (cosmented) seam - Two piece 1. Circle drawn into cup shaped cylinder. 2. One circle needed for top Two methods for making 2 piece cans - Drawn and Ironed (aluminum or steel) o Looks like : ) ( ironing allows thinner walls (open soda and sidewalls are much more flexible) - Draw Redraw (aluminum or steel) o Looks like: | | sidewalls have even thickness Term “Tin can” is not accurate - Steel cans may have microscopic tin coating - Uncoated steel is called BALCK PLATE - Coated steels can have thin coating of chromium or chromium oxide. - TIN FREE STEEL (TFS) *white Materials and uses - Tin plate cans - Black plate cans (non corrosive, non food products such as industrial) - TFS- most common food can - Aluminum cans- beverage Base box - 1 base box = 31,360 sq. in. - 112 sheets of 14” x 20” - Plating weights specified as lbs./base box - Ex. Tin plated steel designated as 20 plate, has .1/.1 lbs./base/bo tin - Higher plate number = thicker plating 2/10 GLASS - One of the oldest packaging materials (3000 BC) - Non crystalline (as used in packaging) - Considered a vary viscous liquid - Raw materials o Sand- main structural component o Soda ash- reduces melting temperature o Limestone- improves hardness o Cullet- 20% of total composition broken, recycled glass also reduces melting temperature - Minor ingredients o Alumina- increased hardness o Magnesium oxide- chemical durability o Amber, green: coloring agents - Flint= uncolored glass - Bottle manufacturing steps: o Unloading, storage, weighing, mixing, melting (is machine), annealing lehr (550C), lehr apron, automatic inspection, packaging - Two forming methods - IS MACHINES (individual section) o Blow and blow- for narrow necked containers o Press and blow- uses a plunger in the first step for wide mouth containers. Allows better control of glass distribution - Annealing o Purpose of annealing is to reduce internal stress o Process of gradually heating container to 1050F o - Parts of a bottle o thread o Top= finish o Neck o Shoulder o Body o Heel o “toe in” o Base o “push up” Advantages: - Almost completely inert to most products - Absolute barrier to gases and bacteria - Transparent (an advantage if transparency is desired) - Perceived quality image (looks fancy) Disadvantages - Breakable - Heavy weight - Energy intensive manufacturing process
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