POLI 360, Week 6
POLI 360, Week 6 POLI 360 001
Popular in American Political Parties
POLI 360 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by runnergal on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 360 001 at University of South Carolina taught by David C. Darmofal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see American Political Parties in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for POLI 360, Week 6
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/17/16
POLI 360 – Lecture 8 Classic Conception of Party Identification o The classic conception of party identification is found in The American Voter by Campbell, Converse, Miller, and Stokes in the 1960s. o This conception has socialpsychological roots: The Socialization of Party Identification A person’s first exposure to political parties comes in childhood from one’s parents. This exposure is very powerful because: The connection between a parent and a child is one of the first social connections a child makes. There is a very trusting relationship between a parent and a child. The parentchild relationship generally does not compete with other political socialization influences. Party identification tends to be particularly influential and resilient because of the reasons stated above. Party identification is particularly strong when both parents share the same party identification. Most people’s party identification does change as they move through adolescence and young adulthood, when they are exposed to citizens with different party identifications and different political views. Party identification usually stabilizes by early adulthood. Affective Attachment Classic conception of party identification is also marked by its reliance on reference group theory: the idea that political parties are the principal political groups that citizens encounter in U.S. politics. These groups structure people’s political cognitions. Citizens affectively (emotionally) identify themselves with a party, producing psychological benefits. The critical point is that party identification is not a cold, rational, emotionless identification in The America Voter’s conception. Essentially, party identification can be devoid of any political content. Stable Orientation Party identification is generally resistant to change because it is a socialized, emotional attachment. Party identification does not usually change in response to changes in candidates or issues. When party identification does change, it is because of Idiosyncratic factors: changes in jobs, marital status, moving, etc. These are random changes and do not produce macropartisanship (critical, aggregate changes in partisanship). Systemic factors: due to political crises or marked changes in political issues. These factors produce larger changes in macropartisanship. These changes are rare; they happen about every 30 years. Funnel of Causality o The funnel is temporally ordered; earlier political and social influences produce a perpetual screen that influences the perception of subsequent political phenomena. For example, parental Democratic influence will not result in Republican votes later in life. o The earliest influence in the funnel is early childhood socialization. o Next comes party identification, which then influences how citizens evaluate subsequent political candidates and issues. o These evaluations shape voting decisions, which are at the end of the funnel of causality. o Essentially, early childhood socialization party identification evaluation of subsequent political candidates and issues voting decisions. POLI 360 – Lecture 9 Measuring Party Identification o The American Voter’s conception of party identification as a stable, longterm identification shaped the measurement of party identification. o This measurement is based on a 7point scale, with 1 = Strong Democrat, 4 = Pure Independent, and 7 = Strong Republican. o Researchers used to ask who people voted for in the last presidential election, but that only showed people’s voting tendencies. Challenges to The American Voter ’s Conception of Party Identification o The American Voter was written at the end of the 1950s, which was an unusually apolitical decade. Therefore, it is understandable that party identification would appear stable. o In contrast, the 1960s had much political change; there was evidence that party identification was influenced by candidates. For example, party identification declined in years where a party’s presidential candidate suffered a large defeat; for example, Republican Party identification declined in 1964 when JFK was elected, and Democratic Party identification in 1972 declined when Nixon was elected president. Party Identity’s Susceptibility to ShortTerm Political Influences o Page and Jones (1979) discovered that party identification did not act in the 1970s the way that The American Voter predicted. o Party identification was influenced by candidate evaluations and party preferences in the 1976 elections. This indicates that party identification is less stable and more political than The American Voter previously found. This is especially true because the 1976 election was especially apolitical; southern Democrat Jimmy Carter ran against northern Republican Gerald Ford. If this election showed signs of polarization, then what about a normal election? o Party identification is no longer the “unmoved mover” that The American Voter predicted. o Franklin and Jackson (1983) found that party identification displays both elements of The American Voter’s socialized identification and of a more immediate political attitude shaped by shortterm factors. o They say party identification is shaped by: Past party identification: as a voter ages, past party identification becomes more influential on current party identification. Current evaluations of parties’ policies positions. o Therefore, current political issues do shape party identification, but they do not determine it; party identification is a product of both shortterm and longterm factors. Retrospective Evaluations o Fiorina (1981) offered one of the most influential analyses of party identification. o He argues that party identification reflects a combination of factors: Past party identification Retrospective evaluations of past party performance (this effects the incumbent party). Prospective evaluations of expected future party performance (this affects both parties). o These retrospective evaluations are mediated retrospective evaluations; they are not based on personal experience, but instead on news. Pocketbook voting (the idea that people vote on how they themselves are doing financially) is not applicable. Retrospective evaluations are not simple (personal) retrospective evaluations. o Sociotropic voting is voting based on society is doing, not individuals. People tend to take ownership of their personal problems. o Essentially, Fiorina believes that party identification is a running tally of parties’ expected and past performance. Has Party Identification Declined? o There has been a definitive movement toward citizens responding as independents in surveys. o Keith et al. argue that party identification with major parties has not declined. Much of the increase in Independents is not among Pure Independents, but rather among Independent Leaners. o Pure Independents and Independent Leaners differ significantly. o Pure Independents trail all other groups on the 17 partisan scale in their political information and political interests. In contrast, Independent Leaners usually surpass weak partisans and even match strong partisans in political information and political interests. o Pure Independents fluctuate significantly in the party they vote for from presidential election to presidential elections, whereas Independent Leaners are even more likely to vote with their partisanship than weak partisans. o This suggests that there has not been a marked decline in party identification. o People are now less likely to report an immediate identification with a party. Their voting behavior, however, is more partisan than some party identifiers. o This also implies that party identification is a multidimensional concept. o Citizens may value both political independence and partisanship. Citizens may not view political independence as the absence of partisanship, but instead as being able to make independent decisions that are not completely determined by partisanship.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'