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Chapter 3 Lessons From Ecology

by: Rose Notetaker

Chapter 3 Lessons From Ecology 115

Marketplace > Clarion University of Pennsylvania > Geography > 115 > Chapter 3 Lessons From Ecology
Rose Notetaker
GPA 3.0

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Chapter 3 Valentine
Class Notes
chapter 3, Lessons From Ecology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 115 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Valentine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Conservation in Geography at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Population- number of individuals in a location Biological Community- all living things species in a location Potential Energy- stored energy Kinetic Energy – energy in motion First law of Energy- energy can neither be created nor destroyed Photosynthesis- a way to convert suns light into energy Second law of Energy- when energy is converted from one form to another a certain amount is lost in the form of heat Electromagnetic Spectrum- wavelengths, forms or radiation Albedo- when the sun’s energy is reflected back into space Cellular Respiration- breakdown of sugars by plants and animals to produce energy Food Chain-feeding sequence in an ecosystem Nitrogen Fixation 1. Atmospheric fixation - Naturally occurring phenomenon caused by lightning or sunlight cause nitrogen to combine with oxygen to form nitrate 2. Biological fixation - Microscopic organisms (bacteria and cyanobacteria which occur in soils and water) Nitrogen is first combined with hydrogen to from ammonia by certain bacteria. Plants can use ammonia to produce amino acids 3. Industrial fixation - Nitrogen is combined with hydrogen to form ammonia later it is converted into ammonium salts that can be used as fertilizers A. Nitrogen in the atmosphere diffuses into air pockets in soil B. Then enters into rood nodules where ammonia is formed and plants can make amino acids (building blocks of protein) C. A cow (for example) feeds on plants using amino acids to make its own proteins to build muscle, produce milk or enzymes, some protein is broken down in cells to create amino acids D. When this happens nitrogen containing urea is formed released through urination and waste are eventually broken down by decomposers and taken back into soil as nitrates (nitrification) E. A plant like corn or wheat can now absorb the soluble nitrates through its roots to make its own protein compounds thus starting the cycle over again F. Nitrogen gas can escape back into the atmosphere it originally came from (denitrification) Carbon Cycle A. Inside a leaf, carbon of the carbon dioxide molecule is combined with hydrogen from water to from sugar B. Carbon is released as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere via pores of leaves in animals it is exhaled thought lungs, also when an organism dies and decomposes C. Some escape decomposition because they get buried by soil and eventually end up as coal Phosphorus Cycle A. Rain dissolve some phosphorus is rock and washes it into soils B. Then potential plant nutrition C. When plants/animals dies and decomposed phosphorus is released D. May even make way into water and plants get eaten by fish Habitat- where something lives Density-independent factor- Any factor that limits the growth of a population of organisms, irrespective of the number of organisms present in a given habitat Density-Dependent factor- those who influence in controlling population size increase or decrease depending on the density of a population Maximum Yield- greatest yield possible that does not harm the population’s long- term survival Primary Succession – life becomes established on a previously lifeless area Pioneer Community- organisms adapted to withstand great extremes of temperature and moisture - Typical pioneer organism would be lichen (little organism that clings to rocks and other lifeless substrates Secondary Succession- succession in an area that was previously occupied by organisms - Usually causes by fires, volcanoes, hurricanes, deforestation, and agriculture Biomes 1. Tundra - Cold, Snow/Ice - Permafrost- upper level of soil begins to thaw but the layer beneath stays frozen early spring 2. Northern Coniferous Forest - Average rainfall of 15-40 inches, 20 degrees in winter to about 70 in summer - Black/white spruce, balsam fir, tamarack - Moose, snowshoe hare, lynx 3. Deciduous Forest - Abundant precipitation - Oak, hickory, beech, maple , black walnut, black cherry, and yellow popular - Grey squirrel, skunk, black bear, and white tailed deer 4. Tropical Rain Forest - More than 80 inches of rain annually - 2oo species of trees - Highly abundant animals life , at least 369 species of birds 5. Tropical Savannah - Average 40-60 inches of rainfall - Wet seasons alternate with dry, fires are common in long dry spells - Plants and animals are drought and fire tolerant - Zebras, giraffe, antelope 6. Grassland - No trees except along rivers - Great Plains - Winter blizzards and summer droughts can be severe - Bluestem, buffalo grass, grama grass - Badger, white tailed jackrabbit, coyote, prairie dog 7. Desert - Less than 10 inches of rain - Cactus, creosote bush, and mesquite - Rattlesnakes, roadrunner, kangaroo, wild pig


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