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Week 1 & 2 Notes (Leadership)

by: Ryan Rodriguez-Mena

Week 1 & 2 Notes (Leadership) Mgt 304

Marketplace > University of Miami > Business, management > Mgt 304 > Week 1 2 Notes Leadership
Ryan Rodriguez-Mena

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About this Document

These notes cover the first two weeks of lecture about leadership Vs. Managers
MGT 304
Professor Gregg
Class Notes
MGT 304, Week 1 & 2, Gregg, Leadership, managers
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Rodriguez-Mena on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mgt 304 at University of Miami taught by Professor Gregg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see MGT 304 in Business, management at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
Ch.2 01/20/2016 What is Leadership  Process of influencing people to a common goal ▯ Contrast Leadership and Management  Leadership is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of a vision or set of goals o Not all leaders are manager, nor are all managers leaders ▯ Are they different?  A manager is a day-to-day problem solver  Managers are concerned with con trolling the operations of the organization effectively and efficiently  A leader is focused on developing new approaches ▯ Full-range leadership development  Transactional leadership o Behaviors that motivate followers through rewards and corrective actions ▯ Transactional-leadership  Laissez-faire: This is the near-avoidance of leadership. It is the least active and least effective of all of the leadership styles in the full- range model  Management-by-exception (MBE) o Active form (MBEA): the leader looks for the follower to make errors and then corrects them o Passive form (MBEP): leader does not actively look for errors or deviations from work standards, but when she notices them, she takes corrective action o Contingent reward: this is promising or delivering rewards to followers contingent on their performance ▯ Transformational Behaviors: The 4 I’s  Intellectual stimulation – encourage innovation and new ideas  Individualized consideration – treat each follower as a unique person. Get to know each individual on a personal level  Idealized influence – being admired and respected by followers  Inspirational motivation – inspire others to work hard toward goals ▯ Transformational leadership and charisma  Charisma: a special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader  They might have changed how a company operates ▯ Leader-member exchange  LMX is defined as the quality of the working relationship that is developed with each follower  LMX theory o Most early leadership did not consider how a leader’s behavior varies across individual subordinates ▯ What is contingency theory  Different situations call for different types of leaders ▯ What does the Full Range of Leadership Development model include  Laissez Faire ▯ Charismatic characteristics  Someone who uses emotion  Someone who catches peoples attentions ▯ Machiavellianism  “the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct”  Individuals regarded as being Machiavellian are believed to o Their own self-interest o Pragmatism devoid of ethical considerations o Tendency to be unemotional ▯ Total Management ▯ Authentic leadership  They know what their leaders are like and what they are about. It is valued because there is more transparency which leads to better performance outcomes. ▯ Ethical Leadership ▯ Servant Leadership ▯ How is managing your boss related to 360° assessment  You have to look at all aspects of the company, the people that are above and below you ▯ What should you try to find out about your superiors?  You should try to find some common-goals and see what their vision is or their GOALS in terms of the business ▯ Is counter-dependence worse than overdependence in your opinion?  Counter-dependence = Not liking being told what to do  Overdependence = Spoon Feeding, love being told what to do ▯ How quickly do you need to develop your relationship with your manager?  As quick as possible  Any connection you can make is a good idea ▯ Define Authentic Leader ▯ What is Authentic Leadership?  Authentic leaders: o Know who they are. o Know what they believe in and value. o Act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.  The result: people come to have faith in them ▯ Authentic leaders know themselves and behave in a way that is consistent with what is intuitively right.  Four dimensions: o Self-awareness o Relational transparency o Internalized moral perspective o Balanced processing ▯ The Empathy Triad  Cognitive empathy o the ability to understand another person’s perspective  Emotional empathy o the ability to feel what someone else feels  Empathic concern o the ability to sense what another person needs from you  Ex. Heath Gregg can tell when his kids are crying when they are really hurt Vs. when they just want something ▯ Ethical Leadership  If you carry through your morals ▯ Servant Leadership  For the the people, you live to please others ▯ Laisse-Fair  Lack of leadership ▯ Transactional  All about the tasks ▯ Turnover/change  Means when the leaders change o Not always a good thing ▯ ▯ Power and Influence ▯ Nearly all definitions of leadership include the word….  INFLUENCE ▯ POWER is the source of INFLUENCE ▯ Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence behavior of B, so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes  Power may exist but not be used ▯ Probably the most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependence ▯ A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire ▯ Contrasting Leadership and Power  Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals  Goal compatibility ▯ Contrast the five bases of power  Formal Power o Coercive Power  Power by force  Killing someone, cutting off fingers o Reward Power  Rewarding someone for doing something  Better job hours o Legitimate Power  Kings, Police Officer  Personal Power o Expert Power  Experience as leader o Referent Power  Valuing opinions ▯ Contrast the five bases of power  Personal sources are most effective  Both expert and referent power are positively related to employees’ satisfaction with supervision, their organizational commitment, and their performance, whereas reward and legitimate power seem to be unrelated to these outcomes  Coercive power usually backfires  How can you build your personal power? o You study more in your field  Study, talk to other leaders o Referent power  Make good connections with other people you work with  Listen to them, make connections ▯ Explain the role of dependence in power relationships  The general dependency postulate o When you possess anything that other require but that you alone control, you make them dependent upon you and therefore you gain power over them o Dependence, then, is inversely proportional to the alternative ▯ What created dependence  Importance  Scarcity Non-substitutability ▯ People in different countries prefer different power tactics ▯ Influence Vs. Persuasion  Persuasion (you don’t necessarily have power (is reasoning with someone that he would believe or do something. Influence (you have power) on the other hand is the ability to affect the thinking of another o Is contextual, depends on the people and the situations ▯ Which bases of power are most effective?  Expert power and Referent power (Personal power) ▯ To be more persuasive  Liking  Reciprocity  Social proof  Commitment and consistency  Authority  Scarcity ▯ Power  Does power corrupt? o Power leads people to place their own interests ahead of others o Objectify others (use them as tools) ▯ Political Behavior  Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence the distribution of advantages within the organization o Outside of one’s specifies job requirements o Encompasses efforts to influence decision making goals ▯ Causes and consequences of political power  Individual factors o High self-monitors o Internal locus of control o Organizational investment o Perceived job alternatives  Organizational factors o Reallocation of resources o Promotion opportunities o Low trust o Unclear performance o Zero-sum reward practices  Makes people mad, someone is benefitting or getting the raise and someone is not ▯ Impression management  The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others have on them  4 impression management techniques o Ingratiation  Conformity  Favors o Defensive  Excuses  Apologies o Self-focused  Self-promotion  Enhancement o Assertive  Flattery ▯ Defining Personality  Personality is a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system.  The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.  Regularities in feeling, thought, and action that are characteristic of an individual ▯ Managers need to know how to measure personality.  Personality tests are useful in hiring decisions and help managers forecast who is best for a job.  The most common means of measuring personality is through self- report surveys. ▯ Personality Determinants  Is personality the result of heredity or environment?  Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. o The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.  One of the most widely used personality frameworks is the Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).  Individuals are classified as: o Extroverted or Introverted (E or I)  Extrovert  Good for manager that need to talk  Introvert  A lot of things that you don’t need to communicate for (Tech things) o Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) o Thinking or Feeling (T or F) o Perceiving or Judging (P or J) ▯ Type Personality  Type A individuals as ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status conscious, sensitive, impatient, take on more than they can handle, want other people to get to the point  Type B typically work steadily, may enjoy achievement ▯ Person-Organization fit  People high on extraversion fit well with aggressive and team- oriented cultures  People high on agreeableness match up better with a supportive organizational climate than one focused on aggressiveness  People high o openness to experience fit better in organizations that emphasizes ▯ Implications for Managers  You need to evaluate your employee’s jobs, their work groups, and your organization to determine the optimal personality fit  Take into account situational factors when evaluating their observable traits, and lower the situation strength to better ascertain personality characteristics  Personality surveys can also help employees better understand themselves, help team members better understand each other, open up communication in work groups, and possibly reduce conflicts. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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