Week Six Notes Outline
Week Six Notes Outline CRM 1003
Popular in Crime and Justice in America
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katy Davit on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Rogers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Crime and Justice in America in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Crime & Justice In America WEEK SIX NOTES OUTLI NE ! Chapter 7: Social Process Theories, Socialization and Society Social Process Theories: •! Explain how individuals become law violators •! Assume that all people have potential to become criminals and/or delinquents •! Individuals learn values of either conformity or deviance through interactions with others •! Micro-level theories (focus on the individual) Socialization and Crime: 1.! Family Relations: •! The effects of divorce •! Family deviance •! Parental efficacy •! Child maltreatment •! The chicken or the egg? 2.! Educational Experience: •! Children who do poorly in school, lack educational motivation, and feel alienated are the most likely to engage in criminal acts •! Dropping out •! SES, don’t get attention at home, learning disability, race, gender 3.! Peer Relations: •! Association between peers and criminal behavior •! Debate over path of relationship •! Delinquent friends cause law-abiding youth to get in trouble •! Antisocial youths seek out and join up with likeminded friends; deviant peers sustain and amplify delinquent careers •! As children move through their life, antisocial friends help youths maintain delinquent careers and obstruct the aging-out process 4.! Religion and Belief: •! Kids who are involved in religion are less likely to engage in delinquency 5.! Socialization and Crime: •! Social process theories think that socialization, not social structure, determines life’s chances Social Learning Theory: Differential Association Theory: •! Principles of differential association •! Criminal behavior is learned •! Learning is a by-product of interaction •! Criminal techniques Crime & Justice In America WEEK SIX NOTES OUTLI NE ! Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory: •! Criminal Behavior learned through interactions with others •! Crime constructed as “normal” rather than “pathological” •! Product of same learning processes as non-criminal behavior Principles of Differential Association: I.! Criminal behavior is learned II.! Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others III.! Learning occurs within intimate personal groups IV.! Learning includes techniques, motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes V.! Motives, drives, etc. learned from definitions of legal codes as favorable or unfavorable VI.! Excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violations of law VII.! Differential associations vary in frequency, duration, priority, intensity VIII.! Learning criminal behavior is same as any other learning IX.! Criminal and non-criminal behavior are products of similar needs and values Differential Reinforcement Theory: •! Same process involved in learning both deviant and conventional behavior •! Direct conditioning/differential reinforcement •! Negative reinforcement •! Initiation and persistence of criminal behavior depends on rewards and punishments •! Principal influence on behavior comes from important groups Neutralization Theory: •! Techniques of neutralizations o! Deny the victim o! Deny responsibility o! Deny injury o! Appeal to higher loyalties o! Condemn condemners •! Neutralizations help us overcome negative stereotypes •! Neutralizations are NOT rationalizations •! Neutralizations occur BEFORE crime happens •! Rationalizations occur AFTER crime happens Are Learning Theories Valid? •! Critiques o! Learning theorists fail to account for the origin of criminal definitions o! Hardcore offenders may have no need to neutralize o! Fail to explain random, expressive crimes Crime & Justice In America WEEK SIX NOTES OUTLI NE ! Symbolic Interaction Theory: •! People communicate via symbols-gestures, signs, words, or images, that stand for or represent something else •! Interaction and interpretation •! Positive and negative labels •! Subjective interpretation •! Stigma Labeling Theory: •! Focuses on formal and informal applications of stigmatizing labels •! Treats labels as both dependent variables and independent variables •! Who applies label to whom? •! What produces stigmatizing label and determines way in which it is applied to different individuals? •! Deviant labels become master status (the status in which you hold more important) Effects of Labeling: •! Influences Objective Availability of Crime o! Limits conventional opportunities o! Opens unconventional opportunities o! Changes interpersonal networks •! Influences Subjective Accessibility of Crime o! Changes your view of the word o! Affects responses to and/or opinions of legal system o! Influences self-concept Social Reaction Theory: •! Primary deviance o! Undetected norm violations/crimes that have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten (occurs a lot in kids) •! Secondary deviance o! Deviant event comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label (caught and labeled) Research on Social Reaction Theory: •! Who gets labeled o! Poor and powerless o! Little evidence o! Contextual discrimination •! Labeling effects o! Evidence indicates social sanctions lead to self-labeling and deviance amplification Crime & Justice In America WEEK SIX NOTES OUTLI NE ! Is Labeling Theory Valid? •! Critiques o! Inability to specify the conditions necessary for label o! Question about the real cost of being labeled •! Important features: o! Identifies the role played by social control agents in the process of crime causation o! Recognizes that criminality is not a disease or pathological behavior o! Distinguishes between criminal acts and criminal careers Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory: •! People will commit crime unless adequately bonded to conventional institutions and people •! Elements of the social bond o! Attachment !! Family !! Friends !! Community o! Commitment !! Future !! Career !! Success o! Involvement !! School activities !! Sports !! Social clubs o! Belief !! Honesty !! Morality !! Responsibility •! Supporting research o! Attachment !! Kids that are attached to their families, friends, and school are less likely to get involved in a deviance o! Belief !! Holding positive beliefs is inversely related to criminality o! Commitment !! Kids that are committed to future success and achievement are less likely to become involved in delinquent behaviors o! Involvement !! Youths involved in conventional leisure activities are less likely to engage in delinquency •! Critiques o! People can have all those assets and still commit crimes Crime & Justice In America WEEK SIX NOTES OUTLI NE ! Social Process Theory- Major influence since the 1950s Social Control Theory- Treatment of the young offenders, head start Labeling Theory- Diversion programs, restitution
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