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Management 320, Chapter 8 Notes

by: Leslie Anne Mall

Management 320, Chapter 8 Notes MGT 320: Leadership

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Leslie Anne Mall


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These notes contain chapter 8 notes.
Leadership and Ethics
Diane Johnson
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Anne Mall on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 320: Leadership at a university taught by Diane Johnson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
MGT 320 Chapter 8 Notes Motivation and Empowerment  Models:  Need based o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory: five interdependent levels of basic human needs must be satisfied in a strict sequence starting with the lowest level. Psychological needs for survival and security are the most fundamental and most pressing needs. They are followed by social needs and self-esteem needs. The final and highest level needs are self-fulfillment and achievement. o Two Factor Theory: there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction  Hygiene factors: involves the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers, such as working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships – when hygiene factors are poor, work is dissatisfying  Motivators: fulfill high-level needs such as needs for achievement, recognition, responsibility, and opportunity for growth – when motivators are present, workers are highly motivated or satisfied o Acquired Needs: McClelland’s theory that proposes that certain types of needs (achievement, affiliation, power) are acquired during an individual’s lifetime  Reinforcement based o Behavior modification: the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify behavior o Law of effect: states that positively reinforced behavior tends to be repeated and behavior that is not reinforced tends not to be repeated o Reinforcement: anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited o Positive reinforcement: the administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence following a behavior o Negative reinforcement: the withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved o Punishment: the imposition of unpleasant outcomes on an employee following undesirable behavior o Extinction: the withdrawal of a positive reward, meaning that behavior is no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the future o Continuous reinforcement: a method of learning that compels an individual to repeat a certain behavior o Partial reinforcement:  Cognitive based o Expectancy Theory: a theory that suggests that motivation depends on individuals’ mental expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards o Equity Theory: a theory that proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performance  Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic:  Intrinsic: internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action  Extrinsic: rewards given by another person, typically a supervisor, such as pay increases and promotions  Categories of motives: direction, intensity, persistence  Empowerment: power sharing; the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in the organization  Self-efficacy: an individual’s belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments. It reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one’s own motivation, behavior, and social environment  Job design: structuring jobs in a way to meet higher level needs and increase motivation toward the accomplishment of goals  Job enrichment: a motivational approach that incorporates high-level motivators into the work, including job responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement  Engagement: when people enjoy their jobs and are satisfied with their work conditions, contribute enthusiastically to meeting team and organizational goals, and feel a sense of belonging and commitment to the organization


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